Stora Enso plantations, China


Stora Enso has been active for many years in China in a strategy to increase its plantations and pulp production in the (cheaper) South. It plans to build a pulp mill in China.

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Basic Data
NameStora Enso plantations, China
ProvinceGuangxi province
SiteHepu County
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp
Specific CommoditiesLand
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsStora Enso has concessions over 180,000 ha, and plans to build a 1 million ton pulp mill
Project Area (in hectares)100000
Level of Investment (in USD)2.52 Billion USD
Type of PopulationRural
Start Date2004
Company Names or State EnterprisesStora Enso from Sweden - Foundation Asset Management (Sweden), Finnish state, investment funds from Sweden and Finland
Relevant government actorsGovernment of China
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersRights and Resources Initiative, WRM
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginUNKNOWN
Groups MobilizingFarmers
International ejos
Lawyers. (Yang Zaixin, who defends the rights of the villagers was attacked and beaten up)
Forms of MobilizationLawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Participation in the company's conflict resolution process, Direct and violent confrontation
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Potential: Desertification/Drought, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Otherless medicinal herbs
Health ImpactsPotential: Occupational disease and accidents, Deaths
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Loss of livelihood, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights
Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseDeaths
Court decision (undecided)
Violent targeting of activists
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.Opposition to the project is not tolerated and is violently repressed.

As of 2005, the villager lost the conflict, but future actions were discussed.
Sources and Materials

WRM bulletin 142/2009, China: Eucalyptus plantations - from Finland with conflict, WRM ()
[click to view]

Doc Movie: "Red Forest Hotel", by Mika Koskinen
[click to view]

The Stora Enso Plantation Project in Hepu County, Guangxi Province", Rights and Resource Initiative
[click to view]


"Chinese farmers lose land to Stora Enso tree plantations"
[click to view]

farmers lose land to Stora Enso tree plantations/1135245537698
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorWinnie Overbeek
Last update27/02/2018