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Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve, Maharastra, India

Villagers protest against relocation and for the recognition of their forest rights. Mining activities and other projects threaten biodiversity in the TR.


The Tadhoba Andhari Tiger reserve is Maharastra´s oldest and largest national park, and one of India´s 50 Tiger Reserve. There are about 79 villages located in the buffer area of the park with a total population of 66,298. In the core area there were originally 6 villages namely Kolsa, Botezari, Jamni, Navegaon, Palasgaon and Rantalodi, which have been now relocated for a total of 992 families.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve, Maharastra, India
State or province:Chandrapur
Location of conflict:Maharastra
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Biodiversity conservation conflicts
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Establishment of reserves/national parks
Specific commodities:Ecosystem Services
Tourism services
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve was created vide Govt. of Maharashtra Notification No. WLP-1094/CR-225/F-1, dated 23/2/1995. This includes Tadoba National Park, created in 1955 vide M.P. National Park Act 1955 Published in the M.P. Gazette (extraordinary) on 9th April, 1955 with an area of 116.55 sq. km. and Andhari Wildlife Sanctuary created vide Govt. of Maharashtra Notification No. WLP-1085/CR-75/F-(III) in 1986.

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Project area:172,759
Level of Investment for the conflictive project217 crores rupees
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:10,000 families
Start of the conflict:01/01/2004
Relevant government actors:National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)
Maharastra Forest Department
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:All India Forum of Forest Movements (AIFFM)
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Trade unions
Gonds tribes
Forms of mobilization:Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Land occupation
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Refusal of compensation
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Food insecurity (crop damage), Air pollution, Noise pollution, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Potential: Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Soil contamination
Health ImpactsPotential: Deaths, Malnutrition
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Other socio-economic impacts
Potential: Specific impacts on women, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Criminalization of activists
Strengthening of participation
Violent targeting of activists
Proposal and development of alternatives:Recognition of Forest Rights under the FRA, and the creation of a community co-managed conservation approach.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:Since the Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve has been notified almost all the 6 villages inside the protected area have been removed, forest rights not recognized and restrictions upon forest dwellers increased. Not all the locals have also received a fair relocation compensation package and the relocation plan has been considered a failure.
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

Wildlife Protection Act (WLPA), Amendment 2006
[click to view]

NTCA Guidelines for Relocation from Critical Tiger Habitat
[click to view]

The Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers (recognition of forest rights) Act, 2006
[click to view]

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

[15] Rucha Ghate and Kim Beazley (2019) 'Aversion to Relocation: A Myth?' ATREE, 2007
[click to view]

[16] CFR-LA (2017), Promise and Performances: 10 years of the Forest Rights Act in India,

Maharastra. Community Forest Rights learn and Advocacy, pg. 58
[click to view]

Gathe Rucha, "Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve: Relocation versus Wildlife Preservation", in Economic and Political Weekly, January 2005
[click to view]

[1] Down To Earth "Tadoba Tiger reserve and unsafe Even", Aparna Pallavi
[click to view]

[2] Down to Earth,'Relocation by half measures', Author: Aparna Pallavi
[click to view]

[3] DNA. "19 rehabilitate families return to Tadoba", Author: Ashwin Aghor
[click to view]

[4] Down To Earth, "Tribals challenge Forest Department", Author: Aparna Pallavi
[click to view]

[5] Down To earth, "Village in Tadoba Andhari reserve wants forest titles, not relocation" Author: Aparna Pallavi
[click to view]

[6] Times of India, "Maharashtra to seek Rs 217crore from Centre for relocation", Author: Vinjay Pinjarkar
[click to view]

[7] Times of India, "Finally Jamni makes way fr Tadoba Tigers", Author: Vinjay Pinjarkar
[click to view]

[8] Pa Update, April 2016 (no 120)
[click to view]

[9] PA Update Feb 2017 (No 125).
[click to view]

[10] Frontline. "Model Move", Author: Kunal Shankar
[click to view]

[11] InfoChaneg, "Botezari: Model rehabilitation project, or relocation bungle?" Author: Aparna Pallavi
[click to view]

[12] Times of India, "Clearance to mine in Tadoba-Kawal corridor held back", Author: Vinjay PInjarkar
[click to view]

[13] Times of India, "Denied nod to worship in Tadoba core, tribals stage dharna at Mohurli", Mazhar Ali
[click to view]

[14] Times of India, "Denied nod to worship in Tadoba core, tribals stage dharna at Mohurli", Author: Mahzar Ali
[click to view]

[17] DNA "Maharashtra: Tadoba tiger reserve faces coal mine threat". Author: Nikhil M. Ghanekar. Date: August 30, 2015
[click to view]

Down To Earth, "Buffer Zone for Tadoba Reserve", Author: Aparna Pallavi
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Jamini village relocation in Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve, Maharashtra
[click to view]

Other comments:We are thankful for information shared by the members of All India Forum of Forest Movements (AIFFM).
Meta information
Contributor:Eleonora Fanari, ICTA, [email protected]; Akshay Chettri, Kalpavriksh
Last update24/05/2019
Conflict ID:4055
Legal notice / Aviso legal
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