Bantar Gebang Jakarta landfill, Indonesia

As a solution to the waste crisis in Jakarta, officials plan the construction of 5 incinerators, a move to further jeopardize the health and source of income of local residents and waste pickers.


The capital of Indonesia, the megacity of Jakarta, inhabits over 10 million people. Jakarta is in a waste crisis, and as the waste crisis worsens, tensions between waste pickers, national civil groups and the Jakarta administration increase. Jakarta produces over 7100 tonnes of waste daily, and most of it is sent to Bantar Gebang, a landfill south-east of Jakarta in the Bekasi district [1]. Bantar Gebang started operating in 1989, where the area in Bekasi consisted of housings and rice fields. The landfill has grown rapidly, as the population of Jakarta has increased along with its consumption, and Bantar Gebang is now one of the largest landfills in Asia. Today, Bantar Gebang is the size of 200 acres, and more than 3000 families live within its footprint [1]. Most of these residents work in sorting and collecting metals, electronics and plastics from the landfill, and make a living by selling on the materials. Trucks from the capital load around 7000 tonnes of waste at the landfill every single day, and according to the Jakarta Environmental Agency the volume of garbage at the dumpsite has reached 39 million tons with a height of up to 40 meters [1].

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Basic Data
NameBantar Gebang Jakarta landfill, Indonesia
ProvinceJakarta Province, West Java
SiteBekasi City
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Waste Management
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Landfills, toxic waste treatment, uncontrolled dump sites
Waste privatisation conflicts / waste-picker access to waste
Specific CommoditiesDomestic municipal waste
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsJakarta produces over 7100 tons of waste each day.

Bantar Gebang recieves around 7000 tons of waste daily from Jakarta.

Each household near Bantar Gebang gets 13$ in compensation per month.

The first incinerator in North Jakarta is expected to turn 2200 tons of Jakarta’s daily waste into 35 megawatts (MW) of electricity.
Type of PopulationUrban
Potential Affected Population20,000
Start Date01/05/2017
Company Names or State EnterprisesPT Jakarta Propertindo (Jakpro) from Indonesia
Fortum from Finland
Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PT PLN Persero) from Indonesia
Relevant government actorsAdministration of Jakarta

Administration of Bekasi

Ministry of Energy
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersIndonesian branch of Friends of the Earth (Walhi):

Indonesian Center for Environmental Law (ICEL):

Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives (GAIA):
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LOW (some local organising)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingLocal ejos
Local government/political parties
Wastepickers, recyclers
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationBoycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Property damage/arson
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Potential: Global warming, Soil contamination
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Occupational disease and accidents, Accidents, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in violence and crime
Potential: Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood
Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.One incinerator is under construction in North Jakarta and four others are planned to be built.
Sources and Materials

[1] Description of an everyday in Bantar Gebang
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[5] Local residents threat to close down landfill
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[7] Garbage trucks attacked
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[8] Incinerator project to begin
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[9] Bantar Gebang to become waste residue processing center
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[2] Open-dumping sites in Indonesia
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[3] Compensation for locals living in Bekasi near the landfill
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[4] Compensation from Jakarta to Bekasi
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[6] 51 garbage trucks halted
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[10] GAIA Report 2018 on Waste Incineration
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[11] Construction of incinerator in North Jakarta
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Other Documents

Waste pickers in Bantar Gebang
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Garbage trucks enter Bantar Gebang
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A truck unloads garbage in Bantar Gebang The Jakarta Post, 10/18/2018:
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Meta Information
ContributorNina Clasuager
Last update11/04/2019