Jingxi is a county-level city in Baise (or Bose, prefectural-level city), western Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. It is known for its beautiful natural environment and pleasant climate. Jingxi City is also adjacent to Vietnam and famous for its rich bauxite mines. According to geological data and metallogenic analysis, the proven reserves of bauxite are 406 million tons and the prospective reserves are 600 million tons.
On December 30, 2006, Shandong Xinfa Aluminum and Power Group signed the contract for the aluminium plant with the Government of Jingxi County (former Jingxi City before 2015). In January 2007, Guangxi Xinfa Aluminum & Electricity Co Ltd. (Guangxi Xinfa as follows) was established with a registered capital of CNY 2 billion (≈USD 285,000,000). The Government of Jingxi County made the decision to fully support the establishment of the Xinfa aluminum project, this is one of the main reason why Guangxi Xinfa could cut off 9 hills, remove and relocate 3,000 tombs in 2 months. The main business of the Xinfa Aluminum Project in Jingxi is the mining of bauxite and the processing of electrolytic aluminum and alumina.One year after the Xinfa Aluminum project initiated its production in Jingxi, the per capita GDP of the county reached CNY 8,028 (≈USD1,146), with a growth rate of 75%, and the fiscal revenue increased to CNY 516 million (≈USD73,700,000), with a growth rate of 80%. 
As one of China’s low-cost aluminum producers, Xinfa Group has ridden roughshod over the country’s land, air, and water to undercut its competition. In order to keep overhead low, Xinfa utilizes a vertical-integration business model wherein it conducts in-house mining, power generation, heating, and alumina refining operations. The firm meets its significant power needs via aged thermal power plants fired by gargantuan amounts of coal. These “off the grid” power plants belch forth CO2 into the atmosphere at alarming levels – according to the latest data, Xinfa’s captive power plants add almost 16 tons of CO2 to the atmosphere for every ton of primary aluminium the company turns out. . The CO2 pollution is egregious enough on its own, but it is not the only manner in which Xinfa mars China’s atmosphere. For example, Guangxi Xinfa emits particulate levels far above the nationally-allowed standard of the allowable limit of dust and the permissible level of nitrogen oxides. The problem of disposing of red mud (a side product of refining bauxite to alumina) has long plagued the aluminium industry, which Xinfa has done precious little to handle in Jingxi.
In the past years, the pollution of Xinfa Aluminum Project in Jingxi County includes dust pollution, rocky desertification of green mountains, water pollution, soil pollution and flooding. Besides all these, local villagers are also exposed to the danger of falling rocks. 
On July 11, 2010, the plant owner Guangxi Xinfa Aluminum Co. organized 300 people armed with water pipes and wooden sticks to attack residents in Lingwantun (a natural village of Pangling Village), because they believed the villagers tried to stop the company from building a new road through their village. In early July 2011, a flood submerged Lingwantun village. More than one thousand villagers were living in tents at the time. The villagers argued the company's bauxite mining blocked the underground water path, causing their homes to be flooded while the response from the local government is that “flooding is a natural disaster”, no compensation and recovery measures were implemented. They were afraid the company's road construction would worsen the flood.
The local villagers have long said the aluminum smelter is polluting their drinking water. The attack by the company ignited the anger that had accumulated since the company was founded. The villagers fought back with home-made metal bombs, petrol bombs and stones. Several thousand villagers from surrounding villages came to help and gathered at the company's campuses, damaging some facilities. The local government dispatched Armed Police to protect the company. Several villagers were arrested. 
A lot of large trucks containing aluminum ore run on the provincial highway which links the Guangxi Xinfa plant and the outside world without coverings to prevent dust. The Jingxi section of the provincial highway became reddish, which is the same color as that of aluminum ore. A pungent smell often floats in the local villages, especially in Sichuantun, Yimeng Village of Quyang Town, where the No. 1 red mud reservoir of Xinfa is located. 
Red mud, the bauxite tailings, also known as red sludge, bauxite residue, or alumina refinery residues (ARR), is a highly alkaline waste product composed mainly of iron oxide that is generated in the industrial production of alumina (aluminium oxide, the principal raw material used in the manufacture of aluminium metal and also widely used in the manufacture of ceramics, abrasives and refractories). The red mud reservoirs built in the early period have not taken anti-leakage measures and have been found to cause different degrees of pollution to groundwater.The local villagers confirmed that after the No. 1 red mud reservoir was put into use, the groundwater used by local villagers for generations was not qualified for daily use anymore. As a substitution, Guangxi Xinfa built a water plant to filter the river water and introduce it into the village through the pipeline, however, the quality of the water is not reliable. It’s also difficult for the villagers to afford the bottled water. In 2012, the farmland of Dalongtun in Yimeng Village was flooded due to the leak of the red mud reservoir. Crops failed, some livestock and fish died. Guangxi Xinfa compensated villagers who suffered losses in crops and livestock, but most of the villagers did not receive any compensation.
The leakage of the red mud reservoir not only caused water pollution but also soil contamination and erosion. In February 2019, environmental protection volunteer Chen Wenxi extracted surface soil from farmland at several points near No.1 and No.2 red mud reservoir and sent the samples to a third-party testing agency outside Guangxi for testing. The test results showed that the heavy metal cadmium in the soil exceeded the permissible level, which could cause chronic poisoning in humans. No. 1 red mud reservoir leaked three times in 2018. The land around red mud reservoir cannot be cultivated. However, on the official website of the Ecology and Environment Department of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, “according to the local environmental protection authorities, the pH value exceeded the standard (alkali), while other indicators such as heavy metals were normal, and the incident had little impact on the surrounding environment”.
On July 4, 2018, the EIA report for the elevation of the No. 1 Red Mud Reservoir dam was publicized on the website of the Jingxi Government, and then entered the construction phase. The residents of Sichuantun who are living on the side of the No. 1 Red Mud Reservoir tried to block the elevation but failed. For fearing of the falling rocks, villagers planted bamboo forests to prevent the stones, especially during the blasts. 
On August 28, 2015, the mayor of Baise City at the time promised to personally supervise the environmental protection work as it was warned by the MEE for many times. However, the environmental issue has not been resolved in the past few years.Some actions were taken by the government to restore the environment in the mining area. The Government of Jingxi City requested Guangxi Xinfa to reclaim the mining land. By the end of 2017, the total area of reclamation was 10,896.55 mu (≈727 hectares), which is still less than half of the total area of Xinfa’s sites.
In June 2018, the Central Inspectorate of environmental protection came to Guangxi. The volunteers of environmental organization ‘Natural Field’ and the “Caixin Weekly” reported the case of Guangxi Xinfa Aluminum & Electricity Co Ltd. to the inspectorate. However, the Government of Baise City denied the problems of rocky desertification of mountains and heavy metal pollution on the farmland.
On June 19, 2018, the villagers of Pangling Village in Xinjia Township could no longer endure pollution of drinking water and went to the factory of Guangxi Xinfa to negotiate. Villagers were pulling up banners in front of the plant, saying "Water pollution problem must be solved", etc. They also wrote a report to the Government of Jingxi City, asking the government to supervise Guangxi Xinfa and solve the problem of drinking water. The deputy mayor of Jingxi City also promised to villagers to write a letter of commitment. But the villagers said they did not receive the letter of commitment since then. 
On March 10, 2019, the environmental volunteer organization “Zero Distance Environmental Protection” published an article on their WeChat public account to expose the false promise of the Mayor in 2015. On the second day, they received a call via a third-party and the volunteers were offered an amount of money to withdraw the article.Three days later, the volunteers received another call from the mayor of Jingxi City, who said that the Jingxi Government fully appreciate the work by environmental organizations and realized the great importance of environmental protection, he will also personally urge the relevant authorities to respond to the questions raised by the volunteers. 
In August 2018, the environmental protection organization Fengtai District of Beijing Environmental Research Institute of Water Source Protector sued Guangxi Xinfa. The hearing was scheduled on June 26, 2019, in the Intermediate People's Court of Baise City, Guangxi. The plaintiff’s claim was to order Guangxi Xinfa to immediately stop the infringement and take the responsibility to compensate the economic losses caused by air pollution and the total economic losses caused by the destruction of groundwater resources and ecological rocky desertification, totalling CNY 20 million (~2.85 million USD). But the judge announced the adjournment of the court less than 15 minutes after the trial, and the case was postponed. As of now, it is not clear whether Xinfa Aluminum will take responsibility and compensate for the loss.