The Ababda are the indigenous people inhabiting the southern part of Egypt's Eastern Desert between the Nile and Red Sea. Throughout modern history, they have struggled against environmental stressors like encroaching desertification and drought. As well as socio-economic stressors due to state efforts for their assimilation and formalisation, and for the exploitation of their natural resources. These have been compounded by ongoing mining and extraction activities by state companies in the area. In 2003, a large part of Marsa Alam was declared a protected area. This, however, led to further land tenure insecurity and loss of access to their natural resources, such as some beaches for fishing and areas of their land. Numerous donor-funded "community development" projects are designed without any consultation or participation from the local community, and without addressing their actual needs. Furthermore, the objective of maximising the tourism attraction potential of the area has so far led to the monopoly of the tourist industry by state actors and stakeholders, and the disenfranchisement of the locals. Leaving the community to bear the brunt of the environmental impacts of its activities. The community founded the Abu Ghosoun Development Association to represent its needs and demands, and is also actively using all available channels to reach out to state officials.