The Jordan Valley comprises a fifth of the territory of the occupied West Bank, and contains abundant water resources about a third of the underground reserves in the West Bank. Tovlan, established in 1999, is a 33 hectare landfill located adjacent to the Jordan River on occupied Palestinian land, within a few kilometers of Palestinian farming communities in the Jordan Valley. It receives over 600,000 tons of solid waste on an annual basis from Israeli settlements. Contaminated air from the dump, as well as insects carrying bacteria from the site, are reported by Palestinians in the surrounding area to be linked to symptoms of nausea, shortness of breath and asthmatic conditions, and insect bites that cause severe skin irritations never experienced in previous years. Tovlan is mainly used as a dump for solid waste from Israeli municipalities and illegal settlements of Ariel, Ma'ale Efrayim, the Regional Council of Megilot, Biqat Hayarden and Shomron as well as the Barkan Industrial Park. Tovlan’s settlement sewage water plant generates electricity using extracted methane gas. The energy is used exclusively by the settlements whilst noxious smells and flies make the nearby impoverished Palestinian village of Abu Ajaj virtually uninhabitable, especially in summer.