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Tozzi Green Ihorombe Agrofuels, Madagascar


The biofuel and biomass project with the Italian company TOZZI GREEN in Ihorombe in the Central south of Madagascar is very controversial. Many Malagasy activists and international scholars criticize the secretive process of attribution of the 100,000 ha area which was announced to be given to TOZZI GREEN. They denounce the possible displacement of the population approved by the Malagasy Government. They are also very concerned about the jatropha culture the Italian company aims to develop in this region that is seen by most of the local communities as antinomic with their subsistence activity.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Tozzi Green Ihorombe Agrofuels, Madagascar
State or province:South-central Madagascar
Location of conflict:Ihorombe Plateau
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp
Land acquisition conflicts
Agro-fuels and biomass energy plants
Specific commodities:Jatropha
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The Tozzi Green operation period will last 30 years, but it is extendable.

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Project area:100000
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:18,000-20,000
Start of the conflict:01/02/2012
Company names or state enterprises:Tozzi Holding group from Italy
Tozzi Renewable Energy from Italy
Tozzi Green from Madagascar
Relevant government actors:Vice-Primature en charge du développement et de l'aménagement du territoire , Direction Générale des Services Fonciers , Observatoire du Foncier , Domains and Topography services, Ihorombe Region
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:TANY Collective for the land defence in Madagascar:, Collective artists from the South of Madagascar, Solidarity Speakers on the Land (SIF), International Land Coalition (ILC), Madagascar Environmental Justice Network (MEJN), Petition to condemn landgrabbing and displacement of population in Madagascar:, Petition to support zebu breeders in Ihorombe:
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Breeders and farmers in Ihorombe,
Representatives of nine villages in Ihorombe,
Collective artists from the South of Madagascar
Forms of mobilization:Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
On November 16th 2012, representatives from Ihorombe (10 people from 9 villages) went in Antananarivo) to inform the media and the public authorities about the alarming situation they are facing and to show their opposition to this project. They talked about land-exclusion, destruction of tombs and sacred places, loss of grazing areas, etc.
Also, on November 18th 2012, 350 inhabitants signed a petition, which they sent to the local and national authorities asking them to intervene to stop the expansion of the plantations and to prevent their eviction from the areas being targeted by Tozzi Green and by the Indian company Landmark.
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Desertification/Drought, Fires, Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Global warming, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Other Environmental impactsAccording to the CEO and the Malagasy workers in the company, Tozzi Green has had a real positive environmental impacts in the region, like fertilizing the soil, mass reforestation with fertilizing plants that retain nitrogen; reconstituting the Ihorombe region environment degraded by destructive slash-and-burn processes; input of forage plants for livestock in the region.
But most of the local communities in Ihorombe, many Malagasy scientists, and TANY the Collective for the defence of land in Madagascar are very concerned about the jatropha monoculture and its impacts in this dry region.
Health ImpactsPotential: Accidents, Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..), Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession
Potential: Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Other socio-economic impactsSome opponents to this project talk about ACCULTURATION of local population in the Ihorombe region by the company TOZZI GREEN.
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Criminalization of activists
Donation for some local elites and Government officials (opponents talk about corruption).
Massive communication campaign on the positive impacts of the project (construction of 2 schools and a nursery, water supply, electrification, 2000 seasonal jobs, 117 employees, training and skill transfer, campaign against bushfire practice, Desertification control, etc).
Development of alternatives:Opponents to the project ask for the end of the secretive process.
Real concertation and dialogue between TOZZI GREEN, Malagasy Government, Ihorombe Region, Local population inside and outside the project site, Breeders, Women.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Briefly explain:Even if the Tozzi Green agrofuel project really had some real positive impacts in the Ihorombe region, we still dont know the jatropha culture impacts on the ecosystems. Also, there is a huge uncertainty about the future of the Bara breeders, especially if TOZZI GREEN occupy the total surface of 100,000 ha previously announced.
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

LOI N° 2005 - O19 DU 17 OCTOBRE 2005 fixant les principes régissant les statuts des terres

Programme National Foncier (PNF):

Code des Investissements à Madagascar : LOI N° 2007-036 DU 14 JANVIER 2008 sur les investissements à Madagascar

LOI N° 2006-031 DU 24 NOVEMBRE 2006 fixant le Régime Juridique de la Propriété Foncière Privée Non Titrée

LOI N° 2008-014 du 23/08/08 sur le Domaine privé de lEtat, des Collectivités Décentralisées et des personnes morales de Droit Public

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Teyssier André, Raharison Henri, Ravelomanantsoa Zo, 2007, La réforme foncière de Madagascar ou le pari de la compétence locale | FAO | 2007 (Link : )
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Andrianirina Nicole, Andrianirina-Ratsialonana Rivo, Burnod Perrine, 2012, Décentralisation de la gestion foncière à Madagascar: quels effets en termes d'habilitation juridique des populations rurales ? Presentation at the Toulouse School of Economics, 31 pp.

Rochegude Alain ' La terre, objet et condition des investissements agricoles '. Quels droits fonciers pour l'Afrique ? Afrique Contemporaine 2011/1 n° 237, pp.85-96.

Rochegude Alain, 2010, La nouvelle Politique Foncière de Madagascar, Paris 1, June 04th 2010, 16 p. )
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Andrianirina-Ratsialonana Rivo, Ramarojohn Landry, Burnod Perrine, Teyssier André, 2010, After Daewoo? Current status and perspectives of large-scale land acquisitions in Madagascar.CIRAD - International Land Coalition -Observatoire du Foncier, 61 pp.

Üllenberg, A, 2010, Foreign Direct Investment in Land in Madagascar, Study for Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). Madagascar, Antananarivo.

Burnod Perrine, Gingembre Mathilde, and Andrianirina Ratsialonana Rivo, 2012, ' Do Investors Really Manage to Have Secure Land Rights? Land Deals and Competition Over Land control in Madagascar '. Paper prepared for presentation at the 'Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty' The World Bank - Washington DC, April 23-26, 2012, 22 pp.

Burnod Perrine, Gingembre Mathilde, Andrianirina Ratsialonana Rivo, and Ratovoarinony Raphael, 2011, ' From International Land Deals to Local Informal Agreements: Regulations of and Local Reactions to Agricultural Investments in Madagascar '. Paper presented at the International Conference on Global Land Grabbing, 6-8 April 2011, Organised by the Land Deals Politics Initiative (LDPI), 17 pp.

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

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Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

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Other comments:Tozzi Green is a subsidiary of the Italian TOZZI HOLDING group and in particular of the TOZZI RENEWABLE ENERGY branch. The company is operating in the renewable energy fields and agriculture.
Today, TOZZI HOLDING companies employ over 500 staff in Italy and overseas, and generate a combined annual turnover of well over 200,000,000.
Meta information
Contributor:Vahinala RAHARINIRINA
Last update18/08/2019
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