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Tuivai Hydro Electric Project, Mizoram, India


The central government of India has sanctioned the construction of the 210 MW Tuivai Hydro Electric Project in Mizoram in July 2013. The estimated cost of the project will be Rs 1,750.6 crore [1]. The fund would be provided under the Viability Gap Funding (There are many projects with high economic returns, but the financial returns may not be adequate for a profit-seeking investor. In such cases, the government can pitch in and meet a portion of the cost, making the project viable. This method is known as viability gap funding [2]). The project will be taken up in the Public Private Partnership mode. Mizoram was the first state to avail funding under the VGF and the first northeastern state to take up a mega project in PPP mode. [1] Mizoram government is expecting that Tuivai Hydel Project will not only enhance power supply for Mizoram but also boost the State’s economy [3].

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Tuivai Hydro Electric Project, Mizoram, India
State or province:Mizoram
Location of conflict:Tuivai
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Water Management
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Water access rights and entitlements
Dams and water distribution conflicts
Specific commodities:Electricity
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The proposed Tuivai Hydro Electric Project will generate 210 MW of electricity. The cost of the projet will be Rs 1,750.6 crore. The fund would be provided under the Viability Gap Funding and would be taken up in the Public Private Partnership mode. It is claimed that Tuivai dam would submerge 1,600 hectare, but not residential areas [1]

Project area:1,600
Level of Investment:285,000,000
Type of populationUnknown
Start of the conflict:2010
Company names or state enterprises:National Hydroelectric Power Corporation of India (NHPC) from India
Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited (SJVN) from India
Relevant government actors:Government of Manipur, Government of India, United Progressive Alliance (political party, chaired by Sonia Gandhi)
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Hmar People’s Convention (HPC), The Mizo National Front (MNF), Science Teachers’ Association of Mizoram (STAM)
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusProposed (exploration phase)
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Institutional changes
Strengthening of participation
Under negotiation
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Development of alternatives:--The implementing agencies, State as well as non-State actors should immediately rethink, implement moratorium and withdraw from pursuing these projects and save the land and people from irreparable destruction.
--The State as well as non-State actors ought to know that the land, rivers and forests are the backbone of the tribal population and their survival. Land, forests and rivers must be safeguarded and protected.
--The haves and influential coterie from Mizoram and Manipur should stop their selfish quest for securing contract job and compensation by negating the ancestral dwellers.
--There should be Constitutional Safeguards for securing and developing land, people rights [6]
Mizoram is a very small state of India and it requires only 100-160 MW of power. Only two or three proposed hydro projects, which can help not only in attaining self-sufficiency in energy, but also can be exported should be implemented. The dams should be selected carefully to ensure that minimum damage to the environment and natural habitat of the wildlife [7,8]
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Sources & Materials
Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

Forest Right Acts
[click to view]

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

[click to view]

Dams, Displacement, Policy and Law in India
[click to view]

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

[3] Tuivai Hydel Project will boost Mizoram Economy
[click to view]

[7] HPC objects to Tuivai hydro electric project
[click to view]

[4] Protest against hydro projects in Mizoram
[click to view]

[5] HPC objects to Tuivai hydro electric project in Mizoram
[click to view]

[6] Mizoram Anti Dam Protest in Aizawl
[click to view]

[1] Work on Tuivai Hydro Electric Project to begin soon
[click to view]

[2] ET in the classroom: Viability gap funding
[click to view]

[8] HPC objects to Tuivai hydro electric project in Mizoram
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

[6] Mizoram Anti Dam Protest in Aizawl
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Swapan Kumar Patra
Last update24/06/2014
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