Yamuna Express way, Uttar Pradesh, India


Jaypee Infratech Limited (JIL) has developed Yamuna Expressway. The road is 165 Km long connecting Noida and Agra. The main objective of this highway is to minimize travel time from Delhi to Agra and facilitate faster uninterrupted movement of passengers and freight traffic. The expressway is intended to serve new regional infrastructure such as the proposed Taj International Airport Hub and various commercial, industrial, institutional, amusement and residential projects that are being developed [1] Thousands of villagers whose land had been acquired for this project gathered in New Delhi to stage protests in August 2010 [2]. Since then they are organizing protest time to time in different places. Farmers are demanding a better compensation for their acquired land by Uttar Pradesh government [3]. Under political pressure, the then government of Uttar Pradesh offered farmers a better compensation. The state government was ready to pay 570 rupees per square feet instead of 436 per square feet earlier.

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Basic Data
NameYamuna Express way, Uttar Pradesh, India
ProvinceUttar Pradesh
SiteNoida, Mathura, Aligarh, Agra
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Specific Commodities
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsYamuna Expressway is located in Uttar Pradesh along the Yamuna river between Noida and Agra. First 40 kilometres would be located in District Gautam Budh Nagar, passing Noida, Dhankaur, Mirzapur and Jewar, followed by 20 kilometres in District Aligarh, passing Tappal. The following 90 kilometres are planned to be in District Mathura passing Nohjhil, Mat, Raya and Baldev, followed by approximately 15 kilometres in District Agra, with the expressway ending near Etmadpur, a village in District Agra .

The pavement of the Yamuna Expressway is planned to consist of cement concrete, rather than a more typical surface of flexible bitumen-based pavement. The only other comparable expressway in India that uses cement concrete pavement is the Mumbai-Pune expressway.

The expressway is planned to be a dual carriageway initially consisting of three 3.75-meter wide lanes in each direction. The expressway is also planned to initially include a 3.25-meter wide paved shoulder and a paved 0.5-meter wide edge strip on the median side in order to facilitate the potential future expansion to four lanes in each direction.

To provide expressway access to local commuters, 13 service roads with total length of 168 kilometres are planned to be constructed concurrently with the expressway. Planned expressway facilities (some of which will involve third-party service providers) include rest areas with parking, shelters and toilets; roadside facilities with fuel stations and coffee shops, restaurants, motels and various other facilities; and plantation and landscaping for environmental, safety and aesthetic purposes [1, 9].

Level of Investment (in USD)2,099,314,000
Type of PopulationRural
Start Date2001
Company Names or State EnterprisesJaypee Infratech Limited (JIL) from India
Jaypee Group from India
Relevant government actorsGovernment of Uttar Pradesh
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersBhartiya Kisan Union (BKU)
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Political Parties: Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Samajbadi Party (SP) Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) Rastriya Lok Dal (RLD)
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Referendum other local consultations
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession
Potential: Loss of livelihood, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Institutional changes
Land demarcation
Negotiated alternative solution
New legislation
Strengthening of participation
Technical solutions to improve resource supply/quality/distribution
Violent targeting of activists
Development of AlternativesThere is still no service lane and underpass for the villagers along the e-way. There is no service lane for the local farmers to reach the e-way. Local farmers have to travel long distance to reach the e-way.

There are also a large number of farmers who have not got full compensation for their land [5]

Farmers along the Yamuna Expressway demand toll free movement on the Expressway. The farmers have decided to grant authorities time till Jan 26, 2014 to fulfill their demands to increase compensation by 64 percent [6].

Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.Chief Minister (CM) Akhilesh Yadav had said that the land of the farmers would be acquired only after taking their consent, but this was not the case. Compensation issue of farmers was not addressed. [5].

During the farmers agitation, on villages located the border of Mathura-Aligarh, criminal cases were filed against some innocent farmers which have been found to be fake in investigations. It has also been found that force was used on the farmers agitating in support of their demands and later criminal cases were also slapped on them. It has also been found that they (farmers) were subjected to unnecessary harassment. The government has found that farmers agitation was to guard their interests and after detailed deliberations the government has decided to withdraw the cases and orders in this regard have been issued [7].

Sources and Materials

Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act 2013
[click to view]


The Battle for Land: Unaddressed Issues by Avinash Kumar
[click to view]


[1] Yamuna Expressway
[click to view]

[2] UP farmers protest hits Delhi traffic
[click to view]

[3] UP farmer agitation: Protests spreads to Agra
[click to view]

[4] Farmer agitation: MPs condemn forcible land acquisition in UP
[click to view]

[5] Yamuna Expressway inaugurated amid farmers protest
[click to view]

[6] Yamuna Expressway: Farmers block traffic, demand toll free movement
[click to view]

[7] Yamuna Expressway protests: UP govt withdraws cases against 24
[click to view]

[8] Farmers protest throws Noida traffic out of gear
[click to view]

[9] Yamuna Expressway - Inauguration and Updated facts
[click to view]

Media Links

Yamuna Expressway - make it free for farmers says - Bhartiya Kissan Union protest
[click to view]

Farmers Protest the Acquisition of Their Land
[click to view]

Farmers Demonstrate Against Land Acquisitions in Northern India
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorSwapan Kumar Patra
Last update08/04/2014