Over the last decade, a new form of kidney disease of unknown etiology has emerged in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The occurrence is mainly amongst males of age group 30–60 years engaged in agriculture. Almost 80% of these patients eventually die from kidney failure within the first two years after diagnosis. High prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease(CKD) has become an environmental health issue of national concern in Sri Lanka. Hypertension and Diabetes is known to be the main causes for renal failure, but in areas with high prevalence of CKD, the majority of patients do not show any identifiable cause, thus, it has been named CKD of unknown etiology (CKDue). Endemic occurrence of the kidney disease was recognized in the 1990s in the North Central Province, situated in the dry zone of Sri Lanka, and this has been increasing over a period of 10–15 years. High prevalence of CKDue is observed in two main districts of the North Central Province —Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa. The prevalence is now spreading to the adjoining districts of North Western province, Uva province, Eastern province, Central province and the Northern province . Recently this epidemic has been found in the Southern province near Hambanthota as well. The affected area covers approximately 17,000 square km and with a population about 2.5 million in which more than 95% live in rural areas  The presence of high levels of fluoride widespread use of agrochemicals, presence of heavy metals like cadmium, lead and arsenic and uranium in soil and water are postulated as contributory factors. Up to now, there is no unequivocal evidence to recognize the possible environmental causative factors. The prevalence of the disease is mostly among paddy farmers and agriculture laborers. Many of these farmers die simply because they cannot afford the cost of treatment. Apart from the cost, it’s the lack of availability of dialysis facilities in nearby hospitals that makes it extremely difficult for the poor to avail treatment. Most cases, people found they are sick at a very late stage, so that it's not possible to reverse the situation.
This grave situation calls for mobilization of public support for fund raising activities as the morbidity and mortality of these patients are often related to their state of poverty . In most households both mother and father suffer from the disease. There is a strong scientific debate regarding the causes of spreading of CKDue. Scientists suspect the illness is caused by a combination of factors including chronic dehydration from hard labor in tropical heat, and exposure to toxins such as pesticides. In 2014 Dr. Jayasumana, from Faculty of Medicine of the Rajarata University published a paper  where hypothesis, glyphosate bonds with toxic heavy metals in the environment such as cadmium and arsenic, forming stable compounds that are consumed in food and water and do not break down until reaching victims’ kidneys. Moreover a study conducted in Sri Lanka in 2013 by the World Health Organization  detected both cadmium and glyphosate, as well as other pesticides and heavy metals, in the environment of endemic areas, and in kidney patients’ urine. Glyphosate is the active ingredient in Monsanto’s top-selling herbicide Roundup. Concerned the chemical may be linked to the kidney disease killing agricultural workers, Sri Lanka's President Mahinda Rajapaksa on March 2014 ordered a ban  on glyphosate. Immediately reply arrived from USA's Monsanto, who retaliated, saying that the new studies are based on untested theories rather than hard data.
Facing political opposition and questions about its scientific evidence by sponsored Pesticide Technical Committee, Monsanto and agrochemical industry groups, Sri Lanka’s government has placed on hold its decision to ban the top-selling Monsanto herbicide glyphosate . Already in June 2011 an Open Forum on Agro-Chemicals was held at the Hector Kobbekaduwa Agriculture Research and Training Institute, in Colombo, with the participation of over 200 people representing farmers, Trade unions, civil society organizations, academics and researches. This was organized by Vikalpanie Centre for Environmental Justice, Monlar, Sri Lanka Soba Samuhikaya, New Era, Swarnahansa Padanama, and the Buddhist Actions on Nature and other Civil Society organizations. During the meeting team of researchers from the Kelaniya and Rajarata Universities found that high levels of Arsenic in number of pesticides. They claimed that Chronic Kidney Disease found in Rajarata is due to Calcium Arsenate as a result of these pesticides. However, researchers in University of Peradeniya says that the kidney failure is due to high levels of Cadmium in Fertilizer . CEJ and other EJO are launching campaign for - awareness - demand to Court to control the pesticide - increases facilities for the pre-identification of the disease - increases facilities for the treatment of the disease CKDue is not the only disease related with the abuse of pesticide. Pesticides imported to Sri Lanka contains harmful constituents such as Arsenic, Mercury and other heavy metals. These unauthorized pesticides are imported to the country by submitting forged and illegal data and documents to the Sri Lankan authorities. The “Arsenicosis” is a chronic illness resulting from drinking water with high levels of Arsenic. According to scientific researches, it has found that these are cause number of cancer types including Skin cancer, Bladder cancer, Lung cancer etc.
There are number of effects which cause variety of impacts to human bodies. Neurobehavioral and Naturopathic Effects, Effects on Memory and Intellectual Function, Reproductive Effects, Steatosis (Fatty Liver), Cardiovascular Disease, Ischemic Heart Diseases (IHD), Carotid Atherosclerosis, Respiratory System Diseases, Effects on Hormonal System, Diabetes Mellitus are some of them .