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Hotel Algarrobico, Almeria, Spain


Algarrobico Beach lies on Spain´s south-eastern coast, close to the city of Garboneras (Almería province) in Andalusia. The beach was one of few remaining unspoilt Mediterranean litoral landscapes in Spain [1], described by de Gatas natural park guide as a beach of singular beauty. In 1985, the city council of Carboneras adopted Subsidiary Rules* according to the Urban Territory Laws of Andalusia**. These rules and laws defined the litoral landscapes of Algarrobico as building land committed to the urban development in the region. Two years later the National Park Cabo da Gata-Níjar was created, covering coastal areas in the region but not the Algarrobico beach. The year after, the Costal Law*** was established prohibiting constructions on protected land within 100 m of the sealine and building land within 20 m of the sealine, while the city council of Carboneras approved constructions of Hotel Algarrobico. In 1994, Cabo de Gata-Níjar was stretched to include the Algarrobico Beach, as a part of its protected green belt, which was accepted by the Government of Andalusia. Shortly after however, the government published private documents changing the status of Algarrobico Beach, as it would return to be unprotected building land, exceeding the provisions of the Nature Conservation Law 4/89 [2]. In 2001, Azata del Sol. S.L, a firm buying and selling real estate, applied for a license to build a hotel on Agarrobico Beach. Two years later, in 2003, Azata del Sol. S.L acquired the license and begun constructing the hotel. Despite the Costal Law's 100 m prohibition, the hotel was constructed 47 m from the sealine, with pools and surrounding walls closing the distance to the sealine to only 14 m [2], making the construction illegal. The Environmental Ministry of Andalucia then initiated the formalities for the expropriation. A couple of months later, the environmental organization Salvemos Mojácar started lobbying against the hotel, which quickly led to a paralysis of the construction of the hotel. The organization started to press for demolition of the hotel. The Andalucian Court affirmed and ordered Azata del Sol. S.L. to withdraw from their construction rights and allow for the hotel construction to be demolished in exchange for 2,3 million euros. Azata del Sol. S.L. responded by demanding a much larger sum, 200 million euros [3]. The Government would not offer more than 40 million euros. The following years (2007 until 2017) the governmental environmental sectors have persistently claimed the need of protecting Algarrobico Beach and prohibit constructions on the site re-adopting 1994’s Cabo de Gata-Níjar regulations, stating Algarrobico beach as grounds to be protected from destruction. Meanwhile Greenpeace has actively painted (both narratively and physically) the Azata del Sol S.L Hotel as illegal, stressed the demolition of the project, organized petitions against the project and occupied the building, highlighting that the hotel construction still stands opposing the Court’s orders.        NOTES 1. The Daily Telegraph 2. Greenpeace 3. 20 minutos.   (Specification of and links to sources are to be in the section “Sources and Materials”).  *Normas Subsidiarias, NNSS   **Ley de Ordenación Urbanística de Andalucía, LOUA ***La Ley de Costas de España

Basic Data

Name of conflict:Hotel Algarrobico, Almeria, Spain
State or province:Andalusia
Location of conflict:Carboneras, Almería
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Tourism Recreation
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Establishment of reserves/national parks
Land acquisition conflicts
Tourism facilities (ski resorts, hotels, marinas)
Urban development conflicts
Wetlands and coastal zone management
Specific commodities:Land
Tourism services
Biological resources
Ecosystem Services

Project Details and Actors

Project details

The hotel is a construction with 21 stories and 411 rooms. It was meant to form a part of a golf resort with eight hotels and 1500 flats in total.

The figure of 70 million USD is approximately what the building firm was claiming as income losses, after the courts have finally decided that the hotel must be deconstructed.

Project area:4
Level of Investment:70,000,000
Type of populationRural
Start of the conflict:2003
Company names or state enterprises:Azata from Spain - The company behind the planning and construction of the hotel
Relevant government actors:Andalusia's Supreme Court
Spain's Government
The Spanish Supreme Court
Spain's Ministry of the Environment
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Greenpeace España,
Salvemos Mojácar,

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:International ejos
Local ejos
Forms of mobilization:Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Occupation of buildings/public spaces


Environmental ImpactsVisible: Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Other Environmental impacts
Potential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Noise pollution, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Soil erosion, Soil contamination
Other Environmental impactsDestruction of (one of last Mediterranean) protected coastal areas in Spain
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Violations of human rights


Project StatusStopped
Conflict outcome / response:Land demarcation
Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
New legislation
Under negotiation
Project cancelled
Development of alternatives:Greenpeace and Salvemos Mojácar wants the hotel demolished to restore the landscape to previous condition.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Yes
Briefly explain:The Hotel would have larger destructive impact if in business. The EJOs managed to prevent the hotel from opening. In best case scenario, the project would have been refused before construction was begun. The construction and demolition have had and will have an environmental impact on the coastal area. This case has had finally a much delayed successful outcome (largely to be credited to Greenpeace).

Sources & Materials

Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

La Ley de Costas de España

- Spain's Coastal Law

El Plan de Ordenación de los Recursos Naturales (PORN) and El Plan Rector de Uso y Gestión (PRUG) del Parque Natural Cabo de Gata-Níjar

translates to The Management Plan of Natural Resources and The Principle Plan of Use and Action in the National Park of Cabo de Gata-Níjar,

are two documents concerning the agenda of the national park. The limits of the national park are shown here.

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

Greenpeace's articles concerning the Algarrobico Case

Timeline of the construction of the Algarrobico Hotel

Chronology of the history of Algarrobico Beach and Hotel.

Brief article from The Daily Telegraph about the Algarrobico Hotel

Greenpeace. Algarrobico, símbolo de la destrucción de la costa.

España tiene más de 8.000 km de costa y son numerosos los casos de destrucción. El hotel ilegal de la playa de El Algarrobico (Carboneras, Almería) es un caso especialmente grave, uno de los mayores escándalos urbanísticos del litoral.

Meta information

Contributor:Felicia Sörman, Nina Lundin, Julia Blomberg (Lund University)
Last update13/04/2017



Hotel Ilegal

Photo of one of Greenpeace's six activist actions.

Coastal Area and the hotel


Cabo de Gata Natural Reserve from 2008

The Limits of the Cabo de Gata Natural Reserve from 2008