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Bantar Gebang Jakarta landfill, Indonesia


Description:

The capital of Indonesia, the megacity of Jakarta, is inhabited by over 10 million people. Jakarta is in a waste crisis, and as the waste crisis worsens, tensions between wastepickers, national civil groups and the Jakarta administration increase. Jakarta produces over 7100 tonnes of waste daily, and most of it is sent to Bantar Gebang, a landfill south-east of Jakarta in the Bekasi district [1]. Bantar Gebang started operating in 1989, where the area in Bekasi consisted of housings and rice fields. The landfill has grown rapidly, as the population of Jakarta has increased along with its consumption, and Bantar Gebang is now one of the largest landfills in Asia. Today, Bantar Gebang is the size of 200 acres, and more than 3000 families live within its footprint [1]. Most of these residents work in sorting and collecting metals, electronics and plastics from the landfill, and make a living by selling on the materials. Trucks from the capital load around 7000 tonnes of waste at the landfill every single day, and according to the Jakarta Environmental Agency the volume of garbage at the dumpsite has reached 39 million tons with a height of up to 40 meters [1].

Although the landfill was designed to use sanitary landfill technologies, it is in practice an open dumping site, which has generated environmental problems such as air pollution, odor and groundwater pollution in surrounding areas [2]. Bantar Gebang is owned by the Jakarta administration, and the administration is obliged to pay monetary compensation to the 18.000 residents who live near the landfill, because of the negative impacts it has on their everyday life. The compensation money called uang bau (smelly money) is to be received by the households every third month, and the Jakarta administration also pays compensation to the Bekasi administration for dumping their trash on Bekasi ground [3, 4].

In 2018, tensions rose when the Jakarta administration failed to pay the compensation fees to the Bekasi administration and to the residents of Bantar Gebang. In May 2018, locals living near and in Bantar Gebang threatened to close down the facilities at the landfill if the compensation money was not paid. A Bantar Gebang resident, Supriadi, said in an interview with the Jakarta Post that he wished the amount of compensation was greater. “We are very affected here with the odor, the dust, and the noises. It’s also high risk for the children because of a lot of trucks [pass by]”, Supriadi said [5]. Weeks later, when the compensation had still not been paid, 51 trucks with garbage from Jakarta were halted by the Bekasi administration [6]. Tensions in relation to the garbage trucks had been reported before, and according to the Jakarta Post, nine incidents of garbage trucks being attacked by groups of unidentified individuals were reported in 2017, indicating the ongoing tensions around the waste management [7].

The Jakarta administration has also failed to manage the wastewater treatment plant, and according to the head of Bekasi Environmental Agency, Jumhan Lutfi, the lack of management could risk the health of residents living around Bantar Gebang, who use the water for daily activities [6]. Bekasi City Council member Ariyanto Hendrata also stated that there was a need for increasing the compensation to the residents of Bantar Gebang. “This is about the health of the locals and it is only valued at Rp 200,000 (US$13) per month [per family]”, Ariyanto said to the Jakarta Post [3].

Bantar Gebang is expected to reach its full capacity within few years, and in the struggle to cope with the ever-increasing waste, the Jakarta administration has planned the construction of garbage processing facilities, also known as incinerators. The Jakarta government has announced to build 5 incinerators in the city, where PT Jakarta Propertindo (Jakpro) is responsible for the facility’s construction along with the Finnish energy company Fortum. The first of the five incinerators is under construction in North Jakarta, and is expected to be finished in the year 2020. The first incinerator is expected to turn 2200 tons of Jakarta’s daily waste into 35 megawatts (MW) of electricity [8, 11]. When the incinerators have been constructed, Bantar Gebang is planned to become a center for waste residue processing [9]. The NGO Global Alliance of Incinerator Alternatives (GAIA) has warned about waste residue processing centers, as they report that the by-products created of incineration, which include ash, slag or sludge, are highly toxic because the hazardous chemicals from the original waste material have become more concentrated [10].

As for now, garbage trucks still run in shuttles between Jakarta and Bantar Gebang, and local residents keep demanding their monetary compensation while they wish for better conditions and facilities. If the Jakarta administration achieves its plan for urban waste management, the residents in and around Bantar Gebang will face new and more serious challenges, as the health of the residence would be further jeopardized by the waste residue processing center, and as the wastepickers who live off reselling materials would lose their way of income as they would no longer have access to the waste.

Basic Data

Name of conflict:Bantar Gebang Jakarta landfill, Indonesia
Country:Indonesia
State or province:Jakarta Province, West Java
Location of conflict:Bekasi City
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Waste Management
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Landfills, toxic waste treatment, uncontrolled dump sites
Incinerators
Waste privatisation conflicts / waste-picker access to waste
Specific commodities:Domestic municipal waste

Project Details and Actors

Project details

Jakarta produces over 7100 tons of waste each day.

Bantar Gebang recieves around 7000 tons of waste daily from Jakarta.

Each household near Bantar Gebang gets 13$ in compensation per month.

The first incinerator in North Jakarta is expected to turn 2200 tons of Jakarta’s daily waste into 35 megawatts (MW) of electricity.

Type of populationUrban
Affected Population:20,000
Start of the conflict:01/05/2017
Company names or state enterprises:PT Jakarta Propertindo (Jakpro) from Indonesia
Fortum from Finland
Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PT PLN Persero) from Indonesia
Relevant government actors:Administration of Jakarta
Administration of Bekasi
Ministry of Energy
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:-Indonesian branch of Friends of the Earth (Walhi): https://walhi.or.id/
-Indonesian Center for Environmental Law (ICEL): http://icel.or.id/
-Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives (GAIA): http://www.no-burn.org/

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityLOW (some local organising)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Wastepickers, recyclers
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of mobilization:Boycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Property damage/arson
Strikes

Impacts

Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Potential: Global warming, Soil contamination
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Occupational disease and accidents, Accidents, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Increase in violence and crime
Potential: Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood

Outcome

Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:One incinerator is under construction in North Jakarta and four others are planned to be built.

Sources & Materials

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

[1] Description of an everyday in Bantar Gebang
https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/plastic-trash-pollution-landfill_us_5b9fcc13e4b013b0977d47ce?guccounter=1

[5] Local residents threat to close down landfill
https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2018/05/17/residents-threaten-to-close-down-landfill-in-bekasi.html

[7] Garbage trucks attacked
https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2017/10/06/jakarta-garbage-truck-attacked-again-in-bantar-gebang.html

[8] Incinerator project to begin
https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2018/05/20/jakarta-incinerator-project-expected-to-start-this-year.html

[9] Bantar Gebang to become waste residue processing center
https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2017/03/17/bantar-gebang-landfill-to-become-waste-residue-processing-center.html

[2] Open-dumping sites in Indonesia
https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2019/03/03/inadequate-landfills-worsen-indonesias-waste-problems.html?src=mostviewed&pg=news/2014/10/13/angry-crowd-charges-hong-kong-protest-barricades.html

[3] Compensation for locals living in Bekasi near the landfill
https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2018/10/24/bantar-gebang-residents-ask-for-increase-in-smelly-money.html

[10] GAIA Report 2018 on Waste Incineration
http://www.no-burn.org/wp-content/uploads/ADB-and-Waste-Incineration-GAIA-Nov2018.pdf

[11] Construction of incinerator in North Jakarta
https://en.tempo.co/read/1175202/bppt-jacks-up-waste-to-energy-facility-project

[4] Compensation from Jakarta to Bekasi
https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2018/10/21/budget-technicalities-bar-jakarta-from-paying-rp-2t-grant-to-bekasi.html

[6] 51 garbage trucks halted
https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2018/10/18/bekasi-halts-51-jakarta-garbage-trucks-en-route-to-bantar-gebang.html

Meta information

Contributor:Nina Clasuager
Last update21/09/2019

Images

 

A truck unloads garbage in Bantar Gebang

The Jakarta Post, 10/18/2018: https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2018/10/18/bekasi-halts-51-jakarta-garbage-trucks-en-route-to-bantar-gebang.html

Garbage trucks enter Bantar Gebang

The Jakarta Post, 10/25/2018: https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2018/10/24/bantar-gebang-residents-ask-for-increase-in-smelly-money.html

Waste pickers in Bantar Gebang

 

Garbage trucks enter Bantar Gebang

 

A truck unloads garbage in Bantar Gebang

The Jakarta Post, 10/18/2018: https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2018/10/18/bekasi-halts-51-jakarta-garbage-trucks-en-route-to-bantar-gebang.html

Waste pickers in Bantar Gebang

The Jakarta Post, 03/17/2017: https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2017/03/17/bantar-gebang-landfill-to-become-waste-residue-processing-center.html