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New airport on the island of Barbuda, Antigua and Barbuda


On the night of 6th September 2017 Hurricane Irma, the most powerful hurricane ever recorded over the Atlantic Ocean, an unprecedented Category 5, made landfall on the small Caribbean island of Barbuda. 185 miles-per-hour winds wreaked havoc. Land was flooded, homes were left without roofs and walls or completely flattened and the island’s road, energy and communications infrastructure destroyed. Two days later all of Barbuda’s 1,800 residents were forcibly evacuated, ferried to Antigua which only suffered minor damage.

Two and a half months later only a small number of islanders were allowed to return, for a few hours at a time. Efforts to rebuild houses were piecemeal. People were patching up roofs using plywood and corrugated iron salvaged from the wreckage. Hardly anything had been done to re-establish essential services. Water and electricity supplies had not yet been restored; returned residents relied on generators and desalinated water provided by humanitarian aid organizations. Schools and the hospital remained closed. But bulldozers had been working day and night for weeks, flattening land in preparation for construction of a new airport.

In a Channel 4 report Leslie Thomas QC said development of the airport is unlawful as it had not been approved by the Barbuda Council and consultation with the Barbudan people had not taken place. Work on the airport, which will have serious negative ecological impacts on the coral fringed island renowned for its seabird colonies, had commenced without the requisite Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Forest, wildlife habitats and land used for livestock grazing had been destroyed for the runway.

The chaotic after-effects of Hurricane Irma were exploited to attempt to erode Barbudans’ land rights. Within days of the disaster Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda Gaston Browne proposed that Barbudans returning to their homes buy freehold title deeds to their land for US$1, which could be used as collateral for bank loans to get mortgages to rebuild their homes, claiming that creating an “ownership class” would be “empowering”. Barbudans objected that this would force them to buy land they have owned collectively for nearly two centuries, since 1834, when Britain abolished slavery in its colonies.

Post-Irma disarray was being used to launch the latest in a series of attempts to undermine the 2007 Barbuda Land Act, which confirms that Barbudans share common title to the land and requires their consent for commercial development. The entire island is owned collectively and managed by an elected council. As co-owners citizens have rights to utilize the island’s resources, including for grazing animals, hunting and fishing. Individual citizens, whether resident on the island or not, have the right to a plot of land for a house, to farm and for commercial enterprise.

Liz Alden Wily, an independent land tenure specialist, refuted Browne’s insistence that individual, private land ownership is a precondition for post-Irma recovery and the only way for Barbudans to secure bank loans for reconstructing their houses. Collective title is not a barrier to securing a mortgage. Another option would be for the government to follow successful examples of establishing forms of credit, such as a credit union, which would not place people’s homes, often their main or only asset, at risk.

The privatization agenda being pushed by Browne’s government aims to enable developers to acquire land, in particular lucrative beach-front parcels, at low prices. In marked contrast with many Caribbean islands, including Antigua, where tourism revolves around all-inclusive beach resorts and cruise ship ports, tourism on Barbuda is small-scale. The vast majority of the coastline remains undeveloped, the beaches remain unspoiled. Residents have approved some tourism projects, maintaining a high degree of community ownership and control.

Weakening the Barbuda Land Act would enable land purchase by Antiguan and foreign interests, to establish privately owned resorts. Browne admits that the airport will open up Barbuda for investors and is pushing for a cruise ship port on the island as well as an airport, to support tourism growth.

On 12th December 2017, in a brazen attempt to subvert democracy, the first reading of the Barbuda Land (Amendment) Act took place in parliament. The Bill, seeking to repeal and replace the Barbuda Land Act and dismantle the communal tenure system, did not appear on parliament’s agenda until moments before its introduction under an accelerated review process. Leslie Thomas said the act was tabled with no consultation whatsoever. Many Barbudans – returners to the island, the diasapora, and their supporters – moved to resist the land grab enabling legislation. Dozens of people joined a picket outside parliament and a petition against the Act has garnered 3,580 signatures.[1]

The House of Representatives passed the repeal bill on 3rd May 2018 and it was passed to the Senate. Human Rights watch urged the government to consult with the people of Barbuda to determine the impact of repealing communal land ownership on their human rights, and to fully respect and safeguard those rights.[2] The Barbuda Silent No More movement was formed to strengthen islanders’ voices as they work to protect communal land rights, determine their own future and conserve Barbuda’s heritage, culture and environment.[3]

John Mussington, a resident who refused to leave the island after Hurricane Irma struck because he suspected underhand motives for the evacuation, and filmed bulldozing of land for the new airport, reported that a huge area of land was being cleared and parceled up, saying it is clear that what is taking shape is not just an airport. He said the “attack on our land tenure system is unconscionable” and that the “powers that be” want Barbudans out of the way with the intention of a creating a “private island” for the enrichment of real estate speculators.[4]

On 9th July 2018 a group of Barbudans, represented by Leslie Thomas QC, filed an application for leave for judicial review of the Government’s decision to construct the new airport, moving for immediate shut down of the development. The islanders sought to address failures by the government to meet critical requirements in development of the airport and failure to follow planning procedures. A strip of once virgin forest land at least 2,164 metres in length that had been used for grazing, farming and hunting and provided habitat for the rare red footed tortoise and the Barbudan Fallow Deer plus rare forest trees including the white sap tree, had been cleared. The following government departments were listed as defendants: Development Control Authority (DCA),

Antigua and Barbuda Airports Authority (ABAA), The Attorney General of Antigua and Barbuda and the Barbuda Ministry of Justice and Legal Affairs. The legal action revealed that the Department of the  Environment (DoE) warned the government of environmental risks including significant gaps in the Environmental Impact Assessment which failed to properly assess archaeology, biodiversity, hydro-geological and geological aspects.[5]

The injunction was granted on 2nd August 2018. The High Court instructed that all construction on the new airport must cease immediately.[6] Fears over the negative environmental impacts of the airport project were compounded by the abandonment of the initial area that was bulldozed after it was discovered that caves lay underneath.[7] Aerial footage shows the land cleared on the initial site along with construction of the airport runway on a new site immediately to the south.[8] The injunction was lifted on 11th September.[9] In October 2018 Prime Minister Gaston Browne expressed dissatisfaction with the slow pace of construction work but Barbuda residents who had been travelling to and from the island said that work had actually stopped, claims which were supported by photographic evidence.[10]


In February 2019, following years of research in Barbuda through the Barbuda Research Complex, Rebecca Boger and Sophia Perdikaris’s wrote of their concerns over Prime Minister Gaston Browne attempts to ‘mirror Antigua’s development strategy in Barbuda’. After the hurricane the Antigua-based central government, which has jurisdiction over the Barbudan governing council, focused on tourism ventures rather than supporting local recovery. The new airport, constructed even though two existing airports remained functional after the storm, is intended to serve high-end tourist resorts. In addition to obliteration of forest, farming and hunting areas for the airport, mining for limestone used for airport construction resulted in destruction of a further 20 hectares of landscape and animal habitat.[11]

In March 2019 Global Legal Action Network (GLAN), an international non-profit organization that pursues innovative legal actions across borders, joined the fight against the new airport GLAN is supporting the legal struggle of the two Barbudans, John

Mussington and Jacklyn Frank, who filed the injunction to halt the project, pending a judicial review, in 2018. Barbudans and their supporters have returned to court with new evidence and GLAN is seeking the public’s assistance with the case through public pledges.[12] Barbudans are being represented on a pro-bono basis by leading barristers from Garden Court Chambers in the UK, who have expertise in environmental and human rights law, in association with Justice Chambers in Antigua, with GLAN providing legal and logistical support. GLAN launched a crowdfunder campaign to raise funds for what is expected to be ‘a long legal battle ahead’, pointing out that the case is ‘symptomatic of a global trend where vulnerable communities are dispossessed of their land to make way for large-scale private investments from which governments, multinational corporations and investors seek to profit’. The crowdfunder also mentions the climate change impacts of the new airport ‘to which Barbuda, a low-lying island, is particularly vulnerable.’[13]

Basic Data

Name of conflict:New airport on the island of Barbuda, Antigua and Barbuda
Country:Antigua and Barbuda
State or province:Barbuda
Location of conflict:Codrington
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Ports and airport projects
Land acquisition conflicts
Building materials extraction (quarries, sand, gravel)
Specific commodities:Land

Project Details and Actors

Project details

In December 2016 the government of Antigua & Barbuda stated that it would begin inviting bids for a contract to construct a new international airport on the island of Barbuda in the first quarter of 2017. Prime Minister Gaston Browne said that funding for the new airport had so far come from private investors, totaling up to US$14 million.[14]

Construction of a new airport began shortly after Barbuda was devastated by Hurricane Irma on 6th September 2017.[1] By July 2018 a 2,164 meter strip of forest land had been cleared for the airport.[5]. Construction of the runway was in progress when the project was halted by a court injunction on 2nd August 2018. [15]

In August 2020 the government stated that construction of the runway was set to be completed. Barbuda Council members said there were still concerns about the location and geological stability. Secretary of Barbuda Council Paul Nedd, said that sinkholes had appeared around the perimeter of the compound. A photograph of a gaping crater adjacent to the site was published. He also stated that Barbuda Council had not been paid for marl that had been removed from near the site and used for runway construction. Cabinet denied this, stating that the payment amount, to be shared between Barbuda Council and the government, had been agreed bringing an end to the matter. The government entered into an agreement with Peace, Love and Happiness (PLH) developers to complete the runway and build a new terminal at the site. The cost of the works was to be covered by the government, covered by a loan to be facilitated by PLH. According to Information Minister Melford Nicholas the Antigua and Barbuda Airport Authority (ABAA) had indicated that an additional USD8 million was required for completion of the runway and terminal.[16]

In October 2020 four lawyers from the Ministry of Legal Affairs were invited to address a variety of legal issues that the government was required to defend in the High Court. The primary issue was the calculation of payment for completing the runway and permission to construct an FBO operation (fixed-base operator) at the new airport. It was agreed that PLH would be granted permission to build and operate an FBO while the government would construct the terminal.[17]

Type of populationRural
Affected Population:1,638
Start of the conflict:08/11/2017
Company names or state enterprises:Peace, Love and Happiness (PLH) from Antigua and Barbuda - The government entered into an agreement with Peace, Love and Happiness (PLH) developers to complete the runway and build a new terminal at the site. The cost of the works was to be covered by the government, covered by a loan to be facilitated by PLH.[16] Granted permission to build and operate an FBO[17]
Relevant government actors:Government of Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda Airports Authority (ABAA)
Development Control Authority (DCA)
Department of the Environment (DoE)
Barbuda Ministry of Justice and Legal Affairs
The Attorney General of Antigua and Barbuda
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Barbuda Silent No More
Barbuda Research Complex -
Global Legal Action Network (GLAN) -

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
International ejos
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
Fisher people
Forms of mobilization:Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Crowdfunder to support legal challenge agaisnt construction of the airport


Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Potential: Air pollution, Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Oil spills, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Potential: Other Health impacts
Other Health impactsIllnesses caused by pollutants emitted by aircraft
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..)


Project StatusUnknown
Conflict outcome / response:Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
Project temporarily suspended
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Briefly explain:Construction of the new airport on the island of Barbuda commenced without consulting residents and the requisite planning and environmental impact procedures were not followed. An injunction halting the airport project was granted on 2nd August 2018, but lifted a few weeks later on 11th September.

Sources & Materials

[1] Land grab looms in hurricane-wrecked Barbuda, and what is taking shape is not just an airport, Global Anti-Aerotropolis Movement (GAAM), 21 December 2017

[2] Antigua and Barbuda: Barbudans Fighting for Land Rights, Human Rights Watch, 12 July 2018

[3] Barbuda Silent No More

[4] In Barbuda, residents worry communal ownership will disappear, PBS Newshour, 6 February 2018

[5] Barbudans take legal action against Government of Antigua and Barbuda for unlawful development of an international airport, Garden Court Chambers, 9 July 2018

[6] Barbuda airport injunction could be costly – PM, Antigua Observer, 22 August 2018

[7] Plans for airport on Caribbean island of Barbuda face legal challenge, The Guardian, 2 August 2018

[8] #BarbudaVoices, One year after Irma, Barbuda, 21 September 2018

[9] Gov’t seeking damages in Barbuda airport case, Antigua Observer, 28 September 2018

[10] ‘Slow pace’ on Barbuda airport Runway, Antigua Observer, 16 October, 2018

[11] After Irma, Disaster Capitalism Threatens Cultural Heritage in Barbuda, North American Congress on Latin America (NACLA), 11 February 2019

[12] Global Legal Action Network joins fight against construction of Barbuda’s airport, Antigua Observer, 19 March 2019

[13] Displaced Barbudans Resisting Land Grab, Global Legal Action Network (GLAN)

[14] Barbuda airport, seaport and airways in 2017, Antigua Observer, 7 December 2016

[15] Airport work is stopped, barbudaful, 3 August 2018

[16] Barbuda’s international runway set to be completed – despite Council’s concerns, Antigua Observer, 28/08/2020

[17] Gov’t to fund Barbuda airport terminal, Anutigua New Room, 23/10/2020

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

John Mussington took reporters to see where land is being cleared for a new international airport, PBS Newshour, 6 February 2018

Barbuda: Islanders still homeless after hurricane; land bulldozed for airport, Channel 4 News, 20 November 2017

#BarbudaVoices, One year after Irma, aerial footage of land cleared for airport and runway construction, Barbuda, 21 September 2018

Barbuda resident John Mussington reports that a huge area of land being cleared and parcelled up and what is taking shape is not just an airport, Mohammid Walbrook, December 2017

The Barbuda Silent No More movement was formed after the island was devastated by Hurricane Irma, working to strengthen islanders’voices as they strive to protect communal land rights, determine their own future and conserve Barbuda’s heritage, culture and environment

Meta information

Contributor:Rose Bridger, Stay Grounded, email: [email protected]
Last update24/02/2021
Conflict ID:3707



New Barbuda airport runway

Virgin forest land used for farming and hunting and a habitat for rare species destroyed for runway. Source:

Land bulldozed for new airport

Land was bulldozed for a new airport on Barbuda without consulting residents. Source: Antigua News Room

Airport before hospitals

Woman holds sign reading ‘Airport before hospitals?’ at protest against repeal of Barbuda Land Act. Source: Thalia Maragh @thaliamaragh

Barbuda protester image

Image used for GLAN crowdfunder. Photo: Thomson Reuters Foundation/ Claudio Accheri

Aerial view of new airport

Aerial view of Barbuda showing scale of initial phase of the airport runway and its forested location. Source: The Global Legal Action Network (GLAN)

Crater in the landscape

Construction of the airstrip left a gaping crater in the landscape adjacent to the site. Photo: Antigua Observer, 28/08/2020