The Tubarão Port is the largest iron ore export terminal in the world. It is located in Victoria, the capital of the State of Espírito Santo in Brazil. Since 2009 people in the neighborhoods noticed "black powder" in their environment and especially inside their homes. This "Black powder" is a combination of iron ore and others pollutants present in the air because of the activity of the Tubarão Port. In February 2015, the local legislature set up a Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry (PCI) to find out the responsibility, and they concluded that Vale, Arcellor Mital and Samarco are the companies responsible for this emissions.
In 2013 has emerged the campaign "Juntos-SOS ES Ambiental" which is a network of around 12 social and environmental organizations in order to manifest and strength efforts against pollutants of Tubarão Port. Due to the increase in the toxic air pollution, in 2016, a Brazilian federal court ordered the suspension of activities. The court order paralyzed imports and exports of metals such as iron.
From a public health perspective, an international study on childhood respiratory disease has shown that the incidence of asthma in Espírito Santo is 27.8% higher than the national average; rhinitis is 80, 2% higher and rhinoconjunctivitis, 66.6%. A gap in the environmental legislation: According to the Secretary of Environment of Vitoria (Dione Miranda), despite the disrespect and health risk in the community, nobody would be punished. The argument was that the environmental legislation of the State and municipality do not contemplate sanctions. Meanwhile, the government has proposed countervailing measures as the creation of an Environmental Fund supported by the companies to monitor and inspect the air and environmental pollution; the building of health infrastructures such as Hospital and special units to treat specific diseases. Meanwhile, people in Victoria still protesting against the pollution of their environment and facing health damage.