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Bumbuna Dam, Sierra Leone


Description:

In a territory rich in diamonds, gold, iron, rutile and bauxite, the ideation of Bumbuna dam was accompanied by a series of promises made by the politicians in power: jobs for everyone and free electricity, tourism and economic prosperity, monetary compensation. However, the expression ‘When Bumbuna is completed’ become for Sierra Leone’s people a way to say ‘never’[1, p.15].  The first Sierra Leone’s nation-wide hydropower inventory was financed by UNDP in 1970, which identified 22 potential sites. In 1982 the Italian Salini Costruttori (locally known as SalCost) began the construction works for a dam co-financed by the World Bank, the Government of Italy and the African Development Bank.

Between 1995 and 1997, however, a civil war erupted and the area around the dam was the centre of clashes between the various armed groups involved in the conflict: the dam became a strategic target. The construction company's directors, therefore, decided to hire mercenary troops to protect their staff, equipment and machinery [2]. In 2002 works were resumed with completion forecast to end in 2007. After trials and the solving of a few technical problems, the 50MW turbines of the power station started up in November 2009. Since then, however, technical problems and polemics due to the frequent interruption of the station's supply have not failed to appear [2]. Only one of the 30-year old plant`s two turbines was functioning, and roughly five percent of the population at the time had access to power, despite mining activities were running as usual. Nevertheless, the second phase of the project is planned for the increase in supply from 50MW to 350MW by 2017 ‘Bumbuna will be finished only at the end of the world’ ironically sang the well-known Sierra Leonean singer Emerson Bockarie [3]. Mistrust, suspicion and presumption of corruption became the general feeling around the project. According to an enquiry undertaken by the World Bank, there was a widespread opinion among the inhabitants of the Tonkolili District that the works to complete the power station had been deliberately slowed down by the Italian constructors themselves - allegedly with the agreement of some corrupt members of the government- in order to have more time to secretly mine and smuggle out the gold and diamonds found during the construction of the dam [1]. It is also interesting to note that the local population was convinced that the dam belonged to the same construction company. The latter had sought to build up over the years a relationship of ‘good neighbourliness’ with the inhabitants of the villages near the dam, making gifts of various kinds. In this way, a paternalistic relationship was set up in which the local communities “were begging the constructor instead of asking for their rights, of which they were not fully aware” [2]. Two main communities were directly impacted by the project construction, protesting the “reckless” construction of the dam and “the lack of inclusion of the affected communities in the decision-making” [1]. Another episode raised tensions and suspicion among the landowners along the route where the high tension pylons had been built. In 2009, about some 176 homes being demolished along this route. To motivate this operation, the authorities explained that there was a high health risk. But a local satirical newspaper questioned the scientific grounds for this explanation, describing it as an urban myth. The doubt was that the medical reason for demolishing the house might only be an excuse to ‘disturb, harry, and terrorise other people’ [2].

Update: In July 2020, riots broke out in Makeni over the decision of the government to relocate a standby generator, which is supplied by Bumbuna Dam. During a two-days violent protest, five people died in clashes with the police. A steady flow of electricity of Bumbuna can still not be guaranteed during the dry season. However, the Ministry of Energy and the Electricity Distribution and Supply Authority (EDSA) decided overnight to relocate the generator to the airport town Lungi [4].

Furthermore, Sierra Leone's Ministry of Energy has reached an agreement with Joule Africa and various Development Partners to finance and launch the construction of Bumbuna II [5]. Bumbuna II consists of a second dam project located 32km upstream of Bumbuna in Yiben, which is supposed to add 143 to Bumbuna I. A Social and Environmental Impact study has not been conducted yet.

For more information on Bumbuna II please check:

https://ejatlas.org/conflict/bumbuna-ii-dam

Basic Data

Name of conflict:Bumbuna Dam, Sierra Leone
Country:Sierra Leone
State or province:Tonkolili District
Location of conflict:Bumbuna
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Water Management
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Mineral ore exploration
Dams and water distribution conflicts
Specific commodities:Aluminum/Bauxite
Gold
Iron ore
Electricity
Water

Project Details and Actors

Project details

The project, situated some 350 Km from Freetown, consists of a rockfill dam with a semi-outdoor power station, located on the right bank downstream at the toe, housing two Francis Turbine units with a total installed capacity of 50MW; two 9 m. dia. diversion tunnels; two bell-shaped spillways. [4]

Project area:392,000
Level of Investment for the conflictive project1,100,000,000
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:6,146
Company names or state enterprises:Salini Impregilo from Italy
Relevant government actors:Italian Government (funding institution)
International and Finance InstitutionsThe World Bank (WB) from United States of America
African Development Bank - Banque Africaine de Développement

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityLOW (some local organising)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Social movements
International scientists
Forms of mobilization:Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Songs

Impacts

Environmental ImpactsVisible: Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Mine tailing spills
Potential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Soil contamination, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsPotential: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..), Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution, Infectious diseases
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Increase in violence and crime, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..)

Outcome

Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Corruption
Migration/displacement
Repression
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The dam took 30 years to be completed and it serves the mining industries, while the vast majority of Sierra Leone's population lacks of electricity

Sources & Materials

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

[1] Mazzei, L., Scuppa, G. 2006. The Role of Communication in Large Infrastructure. The Bumbuna Hydroelectric Project in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone. World Bank Working Paper 84. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank

[2] D’Angelo, 2014 Changing Environments, Occult Protests, and Social Memories in Sierra Leone. Social Evolution & History, Vol. 13 No. 2, September 2014 22–56

Government of the Republic of Sierra Leone and World Bank. Bumbuna Hydropower project: Resettlement Action Plan for the reservoir and dam area
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/927461468167368163/pdf/RP2950vol-01.pdf

[3] Awareness Times. 2008. President Ernest Koroma, Afsatu & Co. Overcome

[4] Politico SL Free Media Group (2020). Christiana Saccoh
https://politicosl.com/articles/sierra-leone-violence-erupts-makeni-leading-five-dead

[5] Sierra Leone Telegraph. 2020. Abdul Rahsid Thomas
https://www.thesierraleonetelegraph.com/government-of-sierra-leone-and-joule-africa-reach-agreement-on-bumbuna-ii/

Meta information

Contributor:AB - ICTA
Last update03/09/2020
Conflict ID:2839

Images

 

Bumbuna Dam

Credits: Tewodros.Kebede (Panoramio)

Aerial view of village Bumbuna, Northern Province

Credits: Peter C. Andersen