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Chevron and Shell Ravage Escravos, Nigeria


Description:

Escravos is located in Warri South Local Government Area of Delta State. Communities here include Ugborodu, Ogidigben, Jala, Madagho and Ajidubu. Escravos plays host to two major transnational oil companies Shell and Chevron. Shell has three flow stations (Sagara, Otumara and Ogidigbe flow stations), while Chevron has its flow station offshore.

The main occupation here is fishing. Oil spill has had direct and astonishing impact on their means of livelihoods.

In July 2001, there was a very notorious crude oil spill along the Escravos Warri crude oil pipeline. Crude oil pumped from Escravos to Warri for about four days did not get to Warri. This huge quantity of crude oil was spilled into the creeks down to the sea. The result was massive destruction of aquatic life and the accompanying human misery.

Basic Data

Name of conflict:Chevron and Shell Ravage Escravos, Nigeria
Country:Nigeria
State or province:Delta State
Location of conflict:Escravos, Warri South Local Government Area
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Pollution related to transport (spills, dust, emissions)
Oil and gas exploration and extraction
Specific commodities:Crude oil

Project Details and Actors

Project details

Type of populationRural
Start of the conflict:07/2001
Company names or state enterprises:Chevron from United States of America
Chevron Nigeria Limited from Nigeria
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) from Nigeria
Royal Dutch Shell (Shell) from Netherlands
Relevant government actors:Nigeria Federal Government agencies, such as NESREA (National Environmental Standards and Regulation Agency) and NOSDRA
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Environmental Rights Action

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stageMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups mobilizing:Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Social movements
Trade unions
Fisher people
Forms of mobilization:Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Media based activism/alternative media

Impacts

Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Oil spills
Potential: Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Waste overflow, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)
Potential: Infectious diseases
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures
Potential: Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession

Outcome

Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Migration/displacement
Negotiated alternative solution
Under negotiation
Development of alternatives:Chevron and Shell must emback on restoration of the Escravos environment.
Spill must be cleared immediately.
Both TNCs should adhere to international standards.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The communities in the area still count their lost over the spill.

Sources & Materials

Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

Nigeria Federal Government agencies, such as NESREA (National Environmental Standards and Regulation Agency) and NOSDRA (National Oil Spill Detection and Remediation Agency)

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Knee deep in Crude; Vol 1. A Publication of environmental Rights Action/ Friends of the Earth Nigeria.

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

Nigeria Delta Congress
http://www.nigerdeltacongress.com/carticles/chevron_and_shell_ravage_escravo.htm

Hydrocarbons Technology
http://www.hydrocarbons-technology.com/projects/escravos

Meta information

Contributor:Nnimmo Bassey
Last update15/03/2018