Citadel Capital is Egypts largest private equity company. In 2007 it launched the Wafra Fund to invest in agriculture in Sudan, in which the company's holdings have since increased to three distinct sites and companies. In South Sudan, Wafra acquired a 25-year lease on 105,000 ha through its subsidiary, Concord, previously known as the Sudanese Egyptian Agricultural Crops Company (SEAC). The land was community land which, according to the 2009 Land Act, is to be state-recognized, but the area was nonetheless treated as state-owned and the lease was negotiated directly with the state government; entirely without involvement of the local people. The annual US$125,000 in rent is paid directly to the state government as well, with none of the investment benefiting the local community. Concord executives said their investment has brought health care, jobs, and increased food security to the region, but locals disagree, citing a mostly closed health clinic with a single nurse, 15-20 sporadic jobs, and no sign of produce remaining in the local market. In 2011 the Oakland Institute (OI) recorded locals threatening protest if more jobs did not materialize as promised, but no follow-up studies have documented actions. Although Concord told the OI that the company would develop land around populated areas, in a 'checkerboard pattern' without resettling the existing community, there is no legally binding contract to hold the company to their promise, nor was a proper ESIA completed. In November 2011, the US governments Overseas Private Investment Corporation provided Citadel with a US$150-million loan package to help expand its subsidiaries â $115 million of which was earmarked for crop production in South Sudan. Due to heavy flooding in 2012 only 1050 ha were planted for the 2013 season â and bad weather severely impacted this harvest. Regardless, the project expects to expand by implementing a large-scale irrigation/drainage infrastructure mechanism, and increasing the amount of land planted in the 2013-14 season.