Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is a National Park, a Tiger Reserve and a UNESCO heritage site. It is located on the Himalayas foothills of the North East state of India, Assam, and it is contiguous with the Royal Manas National Park of Bhutan. The Manas National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage (WH) site is a part of the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot . It also forms the core of the Manas Tiger Reserve, which is recognized as an important tiger habitat. In 1985, when Manas was listed as a WH site, not only had a large tiger population, but also other large carnivores as well as diverse and abundant populations of wild ungulates to sustain them .
Soon Manas was engulfed in the politico-ethnic disturbance that started in and around the landscape in the late 1980s, whereby the Bodo community, the largest tribal group of Assam, was demanding greater political rights and powers. The violence that followed caused large-scale damage to Manas, with the habitat, wildlife, and management and protection activities suffering immensely. It also led to the local extinction of the great Indian one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) and the swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli rangitsinhi). In 2003, after a long and strenuous period of political negotiations, the Bodo Territorial Council (BTC) was established within Assam, which provided the local Bodo community legislative, administrative, executive and financial autonomy in the Bodo-dominated areas of north-western Assam. 
The protected area is mostly inhabited by the Bodo indigenous community. During the military conflict, the wildlife was highly damaged, and restoration projects started taking place just after the declaration of the Independent Bodo Land territory, called Bodoland Territorial Area Districts (BTAD) .
In the last years, the conservation projects, the expansion of the park, and the entrance of international conservationist NGOs such as IFAW and WTI in the area, have generated a new kind of conflict around the park. Several eviction drives carried out by the forest department, have been reported in the local newspapers. The first eviction took place in December 2016 in the Betbari area, under the Bhuyanpara Range, where permanent huts belonging to the Bodo communities were destroyed. The eviction aimed to clean up the territory of 700 encroachers . As per notification No. FD/TP/WHS/3339-48 submitted to the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, Wildlife and Chief Wildlife Warden of Assam, the area of Betbari, Kohirabari and Dihira Panda, which correspond to an area of about 16.00 sq km was cleaned up of encroachers on 22 December 2016 . According to the notification, the eviction was successful and carried out with the assistance of 350 police and armed personnel for the destruction of about 550 hutments.
Moreover, as per field reports and secondary data reports another eviction drive took place between January and February 2017. The eviction was confronted by a strong protest which forced the forest department to leave the eviction after 11 am. The protest was held by over 2000 people coming from the nearby villages . According to a report released in 2017 by Housing and Land Rights Network, 700 houses were demolished and all families evicted from the Manas National Park . Earlier in 2016, the area under Chirang district had also been a territory of conflict, and eviction was faced by a number of 1.000 Adivasis living in the area [6 ]. According to the reports these are Adivasis that have been settled in the area around 15/20 years back as victims of the conflict. No solutions and no alternative housing have been suggested by the Assam administration.
More generally the fights over forest resources and access to the natural spaces continue to be a source of conflict around Manas National Park. The declaration of the park as a Tiger Reserve in 2008, brought new regulations and more restrictions into the area. The forest dwellers have only started the process of claiming the Forest Rights under the Forest Rights Act, and till now no forest rights have been yet recognized (info shared by .
It is also interesting to note the discriminatory character towards the forest dwellers by the forest department and its support by the conservation INGOs. This was observed in a poster which bears the logo of IFAW and WTI, which represents the Adivasis to be expelled from the park in dark skin, and it is written in the poster: 'Trespassers, Encroachers, Hunters, Loggers if found in the reserve will be prosecuted, fined and jailed'.