In Cantabria there are applications to explore fracking possibilities since 2008.
At the end of 2011, the Cantabrian governement approved the concession of exploratory fracking in Arquetu. This exploratory project will last for 6 years and will take place within a surface of 24,876 ha. It will affect the municipalities of San Vicente de la Barquera, Valdáliga, Rionansa, Tudanca, Udías, Cabezón de la Sal, Ruente, Cabuérniga and Los Tojos.
During these years the exploratory fracking operations will consist of drilling wells, stimulating them via hydraulic fracture and doing production tests.
Also since 2011, a very strong grassroots anti-fracking movements has emerged in Cantabria. It is organised through the assembly against hydraulic fracture. This movement has launched a public campaign against the expansion of fracking in Cantabria, spreading information and organising workshops, talks and meetings with citizens and Mayors; organising demonstrations and events to raise awareness about the potential both social and environmental consequences of fracking.
As a result of this campaign, more than 30 municipalities have declared themselves against fracking. In April 2013, the Cantabrian regional Parliament banned fracking in its region.
However, the concessions already given have not been revoked yet and this ban does not affect further exploratory fracking.
|Name of conflict:||Exploratory fracking in Arquetu, Cantabria, Spain|
|State or province:||Cantabria|
|Location of conflict:||Arquetu|
|Accuracy of location||HIGH (Local level)|
|Type of conflict. 1st level:||Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy|
|Type of conflict. 2nd level:||Shale gas fracking|
more than €134,331 invested.
|Level of Investment for the conflictive project||17935553|
|Type of population||Rural|
|Start of the conflict:||2011|
|Company names or state enterprises:||Trofagas Hidrocarburos, S.L from Spain - which is a subsidiady of BNK Petroleum Inc. BNK Petroleum Inc. (U.S.)|
|Relevant government actors:||Cantabrian regional governement, Spanish government|
|Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:||Asamblea contra la Fractura Hidráulica de Cantabria: which is a plattform where many groups converge (Asamblea 15M Cabezón de la Sal, Agitación Rural, Asamblea 15M Torrelavega, Asamblea 15M Santander, Ecologistas en acción, ARCA, Democracia Real Ya, Regüelta and Asamblea contra el TAV)|
|Intensity||MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)|
|Reaction stage||PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)|
Local government/political parties
|Forms of mobilization:||Creation of alternative reports/knowledge|
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Media based activism/alternative media
|Environmental Impacts||Potential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems|
|Health Impacts||Potential: Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)|
|Socio-economical Impacts||Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Loss of landscape/sense of place|
|Conflict outcome / response:||Court decision (failure for environmental justice)|
|Proposal and development of alternatives:||ban fracking|
|Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:||Yes|
|Briefly explain:||On April 2013, stemming from a widespread opposition in the whole region, the Cantabrian goverment banned fracking. On february 2014, the cantabrian government cancelled the permits to frack in Arquetu and declares the fracking initiative that was intended to be performed there as 'illegal'. |
However, on 24 June 2014, despite the widespread opposition, The Spanish Constitutional Court cancelled the Cantabrian fracking ban.
|Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)|