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Lote Ocho - El Estor, Lake Izabal, Guatemala


On 28 March 2011 a group of 11 Guatemalan women filed a lawsuit in the Superior Court in Ontario, Canada, against HudBay Minerals and its Guatemalan subsidiary Compania Guatemalteco de Niquel (CGN). The women alleged that the companies were complicit in the gang rapes suffered by the women at the hands of security personnel hired by the defendant companies. The women claim that the gang rapes occurred in January 2007 during forced evictions of members of the Mayan Q’eqchi’ community living in Lote Ocho / El Estor where the companies’ nickel mining project – the Fenix project – is located [5]. Members of this community have challenged the legitimacy of the mining concession granted for the Fenix project for decades. HudBay Minerals says it will vigorously defend itself against the allegations of rape [4]. Due to the high global demand for nickel to produce batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles [9], the company has a great economic interest in continuing the mining activities.

The local indigenous population of Lote Ocho, consisting of 100 homes and being located a 45-minute drive from the nearest town Cahaboncito, had been threatened to leave their land since the end of 2006 by helicopter flights over the village, the destruction of houses and plundering activities [5]. They had repeatedly resisted until the conflict finally erupted on 17 January 2007. As evidence (emails, messages, etc.) from the ongoing court case testify, the evacuation of the village for a new phase of the mining project was a planned strategy by the Canadian company in charge at the time Skye Resources, in which contact with local authorities was also involved [3]. On the day of the violent eviction, which was carried out by armed and masked external security personnel hired by the Guatemalan subsidiary CGN, and the local police, the men of the community had left the village to do their agricultural work, so only women and children were there [2]. The executors of the eviction used illegal methods, such as operating firearms, and it was well known that this hired private security company had been involved in illegal activities before [1]. As the 11 women of Lote Ocho, who approached the Superior Court in Ontario, Canada with the support of various NGOs (e.g., Mujeres Transformando el Mundo, Equipo de Estudios Comunitarios y Acción Psicosocial, Rights Action and others), reported in the court case, the invading men raped the women using brutal methods already used in the civil war after they refused to vacate the village. Some of the women were pregnant at the time and subsequently experienced forced abortion or gave birth prematurely causing injuries and the inability to become pregnant in the future. To this day, the women report pain and trauma. The village of Lote Ocho was completely destroyed, and the women did not only lose most of their belongings, but also their leadership role in the community because of the humiliation they experienced [2].

Ever since the military dictatorship granted concessions for nickel mining in the area of El Estor at Lake Izabal in eastern Guatemala in the 1960s, the mining project called "Fenix"  has provoked numerous violent conflicts with the indigenous local population [2]. Other examples of brutal clashes with the local Mayan Q'eqchi' indigenous community in the recent past include the murder of community leader Adolfo Ich and the mutilation of German Chub after a fire at protesters on September 27, 2009 by HudBay security personnel, with Mynor Padilla as the head of the firm, and the murder of Fisherman's Guild member Carolos Maaz Coc during peaceful protests in 2017 [6]. These cases were also brought before Canadian courts.

The partly illegal development of new excavation sites by various multinational companies over the decades has not only led to forced displacement, murder and the destruction of ancestral habitats, but the adjacent lake also suffered from proven heavy contamination because of the practices related to nickel mining [9]. This has not only immensely reduced the quality of the drinking water, but it is also destroying the livelihood of local fishermen ever since. Environmental threats include harm to the region’s rich biodiversity. To mine nickel, a sulphuric acid would be used. This causes the same problems regarding acid mine drainage and contamination of the (ground)water as the mining of gold. The effluents might be discharged in the ocean or in the Izabal Lake. Some communities complained about exploration drilling which caused an erosion runoff that has damaged and polluted several communities’ drinking water supplies.

The nickel mine is currently owned by the Russian/ Swiss company Solway Investment Group and operated by the Guatemalan subsidiary Compañia Guatemalteco de Niquél (CGN) but was previously owned by the Canadian company INCO (International Nickel Company) for 40 years from the 1960s, which then operated as Vancouver-based Skye Resources from 2005 to 2008 after the 40 years old mining licence expired in 2004. In 2008, the company was sold to Toronto-based HudBay Minerals. From then on, the name of the project was changed from "EXMIBAL" to "Fenix" [2]. After numerous protests by local indigenous people and the International Labour Organization (ILO) ruling that Guatemala had breached international law by granting the Fenix mining concession without first consulting with local Mayan Q’eqchi’ people in 2006 [6], Guatemala's Constitutional Court ruled in 2021 that consultation with local residents is necessary before this type of project [5]. The fact that this has not been obtained in the last 60 years makes the operations illegal.

In July 2013, the Canadian courts decided that the three lawsuits will be allowed to proceed in Canada following a ruling that makes it possible for firms to face liability at home for incidents that occur overseas. On January 22, 2020, rejecting an appeal by Toronto-based HudBay, the Superior Court of Justice of Canada confirmed that an indictment of HudBay, that had taken over Sky Resource’s legal liability by their purchase in 2008, as well as an indictment of the Guatemalan police and military is legal. The remaining 10 women of Lote Ocho (one has died in the meantime) can now provide further evidence [4]. If the case is successful, it will set a precedent for multinational companies to be held accountable in their national courts for their activities abroad [1].

In 2017, Rodrigo Tot was the winner of Goldman Environmental Prize. He is an indigenous leader in Guatemala’s Agua Caliente, who led his community to a landmark court decision that ordered the government to issue land titles to the Q’eqchi people and kept environmentally destructive mining operation from expanding into his community. The following paragraph is citation from the Goldman Prize: "An indigenous leader in Guatemala’s Agua Caliente, Rodrigo Tot led his community to a landmark court decision that ordered the government to issue land titles to the Q’eqchi people and kept environmentally destructive nickel mining from expanding into his community. Lake Izabal, the largest lake in Guatemala, and its surrounding land in El Estor, are a place of vital importance to the indigenous Q’eqchi people. Descendants of the ancient Maya, the Q’eqchi maintain their living by farming and fishing. They defended their territory from Spanish colonists in the 16th century, and hundreds of years later, they are fighting for their land yet again—this time against their own government and multinational corporations interested in tapping the nickel deposits under their land. In the 1960s, the Guatemalan government began issuing permits to multinational mining companies in an attempt to cash in on the rising nickel prices. Among the mines established during this rush was the Fénix mine. It stopped its operations in the 1980s as the price of nickel crashed, but not before discharging untreated wastewater into Lake Izabal and rendering it the most polluted lake in the country. The global price of nickel rebounded and, in 2006, the mining companies returned to El Estor. The government issued a permit to restart the Fénix mine and expand its operations into the Q’eqchi village of Agua Caliente. The company’s security forces began to forcibly remove people from their land, in violation of international treaties that require free, prior, and informed consent of indigenous communities. An indigenous Q’eqchi leader, Rodrigo Tot was born in central Guatemala just as the mining boom of the 1960s was underway. After losing his parents at a young age, he moved to live with extended family in Agua Caliente when he was 12 years old. The small village became his home where he grew up, learned how to farm, got married, and raised his children. Tot never received a formal education but taught himself to speak Spanish by listening to others. Tot remembers how government and company officials never spoke with the local community about the mines. The Q’eqchi only found out when the miners arrived on their land to begin work. Fear began to spread in the community. People were worried that they were losing their land and, with it, their livelihood. Tot saw the need to start gathering evidence of Q’eqchi ownership of the land and, in 2002, as the elected president of Agua Caliente, he brought these documents to the government and petitioned for land titles. To his dismay, he discovered that several pages from the official land registry had been removed in a deliberate attempt to deny his people their land rights. Then there was an unexpected landmark ruling in 2011. The community’s next recourse was to take the government to court. Tot found legal support with the US-based Indian Law Resource Center (ILRC) and Defensoria Q’eqchi, a small human rights organization in Guatemala. The team spent years preparing its case to establish the community’s legal claims to the land. On February 8, 2011, two years after the community of Agua Caliente filed its lawsuit, the Constitutional Court issued a landmark decision. Recognizing the Q’eqchi’s collective property rights, the court ordered the government to replace the missing pages from the registry and issue land titles to the people of Agua Caliente. The ruling came as a surprise to environmental and indigenous activists around the world who were well aware of corruption in Guatemala’s legal system and had been skeptical of the court’s ability to see how egregious these violations had been.“

Meanwhile, in Guatemala itself, the court case against Mynor Padilla, the former head of security at the mine, which began in 2014, was concluded in 2021 with Padilla's conviction in the killing of Adolfo Ich and the shooting of Carolos Maaz Chub [7]. Furthermore, on June 18, 2020, Guatemala's highest Court ordered the closure of the project due to the lack of consultation with the local population when the last concession was awarded in 2006, until this consultation is carried out. While the mine continued to operate illegally, consultations have taken place since September 28, 2021, but not with the Mayan Q’eqchi’ community's self-determined governance structure, the Ancestral Council of Q'eqchi Peoples [9]. In early 2022, Guatemala's energy and mines (MEM) minister Alberto Pimentel signed a resolution allowing the Solway Investment Group to resume mining activities [8].

Basic Data

Name of conflict:Lote Ocho - El Estor, Lake Izabal, Guatemala
State or province:Izabal
Location of conflict:El Estor
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Mineral ore exploration
Land acquisition conflicts
Specific commodities:Nickel, Ferronickel

Project Details and Actors

Project details

Project area:3000
Level of Investment for the conflictive project238,000,000 (1977)
Type of populationRural
Start of the conflict:1959
Company names or state enterprises:Skye Resources Inc. from Canada
Solway Investment Group from Russian Federation
HudBay Minerals Inc. from Canada - Antiguo propietario
Compañía Guatemalteca de Níquel (CGN) (CGN) from Guatemala - subsidiaria de Solway Investment Group
International Nickel Company (INCO) from Canada
Vale Canada Limited from Canada
Vale (Vale) from Brazil
Relevant government actors:Ministerio de Energia y Minas, Ministerio de Gobernacion de Guatemala, Unidad Fiscal de Delitos Cometidos contra Activistas de Derechos Humanos - Ministerio Publico
International and Finance InstitutionsRelatoria Especial Sobre los Derechos de los Pueblos Indigenas de las Naciones Unidas en Guatemala (OACDH)
Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos (OACNUDH)
International Labour Organization (ILO) from Switzerland
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Comite de Unida Campesina CUC, Comite de Barrio de la comunidad Las Nubes, Mining Watch Canada, Association for the Integral Development of El Estor, Amnesty International, Mujeres Transformando el Mundo, Equipo de Estudios Comunitarios y Acción Psicosocial, Rights Action

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
International ejos
Local ejos
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Forms of mobilization:Development of a network/collective action
Land occupation
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Street protest/marches
Property damage/arson
Arguments for the rights of mother nature


Environmental ImpactsVisible: Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation
Potential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Mine tailing spills
Other Environmental impactsTo mine nickel, a sulphuric acid would be used. This causes the same problems regarding acid mine drainage and contamination of the (ground)water as the mining of gold. The effluents might be discharged in the ocean or in the Izabal Lake. Some communities complained about exploration drilling which caused an erosion runoff that has damaged and polluted several communities’ drinking water supplies
Health ImpactsVisible: Deaths, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..), Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Militarization and increased police presence, Specific impacts on women
Potential: Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures


Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Negotiated alternative solution
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Court decision (undecided)
Project temporarily suspended
Criminalization of activists
Deaths, Assassinations, Murders
Strengthening of participation
Violent targeting of activists
Land demarcation
Lawsuits are ongoing (2022)
Rodrigo Tot was the winner of Goldman Environmental Prize in 2017. He is an indigenous leader in Guatemala’s Agua Caliente, who led his community to a landmark court decision that ordered the government to issue land titles to the Q’eqchi people and kept environmentally destructive mining operation from expanding into his community.
Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
Proposal and development of alternatives:The court case against HudBay Minerals, Inc. for murder, rapes and attacks committed against Indigenous Guatemalans by security personnel working for Hudbay’s subsidiary, Compañía Guatemalteca de Níquel (CGN) in the Canadian courts is still going on. The remaining 10 women of Lote Ocho are able to present more evidence since January 22, 2020. If the court case will be successful, the situation in the Guatemalan mining field might change but the Guatemalan government needs to take action. Given the fact that in 2022 permission for mining activities was re-granted by the Guatemalan energy and mines (MEM) minister makes an imminent end of the project very unlikely. It is possible that further court cases and international attention could put pressure on the government to finally stop the project and uphold the rights of indigenous peoples. The next step could be the complaint of the Ancestral Council of Q'eqchi Peoples, which has not been included in the local consultations conducted since September 2021.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:Business and Human Rights reported in 2011: "In addition to the March 2011 lawsuit filed against HudBay Minerals, a lawsuit was filed in September 2010 by the widow of a Q’eqchi community leader, Ich Chamán, who was severely beaten and shot in 2009 during a protest against the Fenix mine. His widow, Angelina Choc, claims that security guards from the Fenix project violently beat and shot Chamán, who was unarmed and killed him. (Ms. Choc is also a plaintiff in the March 2011 lawsuit described above.) The plaintiff alleged that HudBay Minerals failed to take adequate precautions to ensure human rights abuses would be not be perpetrated by its security personnel. On 10 December 2011, another lawsuit was filed against HudBay Minerals in Canada by a survivor of a shooting incident at the Fenix project. The plaintiff, who became paraplegic as a result, alleges that in September of 2009 he was shot at close range in an unprovoked attack by the chief of security for HudBay’s Fenix project. All three lawsuits are ongoing."

Although the mining project was temporarily halted due to a lack of consultation with the local population over the decades, permission to resume in 2022 was granted by Guatemala's energy and mines (MEM) minister Alberto Pimentel. While media attention to the conflict was achieved and Mynor Padilla, the former head of security at the mine, was found guilty in a Guatemalan court case in the murder of Adolfo Ich and the shooting of Carolos Maaz Chub, many injustices remain unresolved.

Sources & Materials

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

[6]Where Impunity Reigns: Nickel Mining in El Estor, Guatemala

James Rodríguez

First Published January 20, 2021

Paley, Dawn (2007). This is what development looks like: Skye Resources and Land Reoccupation in Guatemala.

Esther Vandenbroucke. Environmental and Socio-Economic impacts of mining in Guatemala: The role of local communities and the ecological justice movement

Wiig, Henrik (2008). Promoting Respect for the Collective Rights of the Q’eqchi’Population. An evaluation of AEPDI in El Estor, Guatemala. NIBR

[1] Open Global Rights - The Case of “Lote Ocho”: Indigenous women hold corporations accountable for violence

[2] Creating an international

Gender and Peace agenda:

Impact of Canadian mines in

Latin America

Extraterritorial obligations of Canada

Shadow report to CEDAW 65th session

[3] BHR - Documents filed in affidavit against Hudbay Minerals in the 'Lote Ocho' case show how collusion between business and state works

[4] Ontario Court Rejects Hudbay Minerals Appeal In Lote Ocho Sexual Violence Lawsuit

October 1, 2020

[5] The Intercept - EVICTING LOTE OCHO

[7] New Internationalist -


[8] Guatemala lifts Fénix nickel mine suspension


Published: Friday, January 07, 2022

[9] Cultural Survival - Guatemalan President Suspends Civil Rights to Facilitate Nickel Mine as Demand for Battery Minerals Skyrockets

Business & Human Rights Resource Centre

Siglo 21

Compañía Guatemalteca de Níquel (CGN)

Choc v. HudBay

The Canadian Press, Ontario court rules Guatemalan lawsuits against HudBay can go to trial in Canada, Romina Maurino

Hudbay, 2011, Hudbay Minerals Announces Completion of Sale of Fenix Project and Key Management Appointments

Skye Resources Inc.

Gold Resource News

Hudbay Minerals

Goldcorp Out of Guatemala

Description of court case in English and Spanish, April 2014

Arij Riahi, The end of impunity? Indigenous Guatemalans brin Canaian mining company to court, oct 2013

CentralAmericaData, Nickel Production in Guatemala

El Periodico

Response from Hudbay:

Hudbay Minerals

The Globe and Mail, 2013, Guatemalan plaintiffs in HudBay lawsuit allege interference

Central America Data, junio 2014, Guatemala vuelve a producir Níquel

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Mi Mundo blog - En Memoria de Adolfo Ich Chamán – a tres años de su asesinato

El Estor. Izabal, Guatemala.

27 de septiembre, 2012.

Canadian ambassador sued for defaming documentary filmmaker on Estor evictions. Watch the documentary here:

Goldman Prize 2017 to Rodrigo Tot

Maria Cuc Choc: communities face violence related to mining in El Estor, Guatemala

Other comments:In 2006, the International Labour Organization ruled that Guatemala had breached international law by granting the Fenix mining concession without first consulting with local Mayan people. The ILO released a report discussing the violation in 2007. Later, Q'ekchi communities affected by Canadian company HudBay went to court. This case might become influential in Canada depending on the court decision in Guatemala on murder cases and violence that happened in 2009 against HudBay company

Meta information

Contributor:Patricio Chavez, Irene Pietropaoli & Joan Martinez Alier. Case updated by Melanie Thut
Last update04/04/2022
Conflict ID:784




Rural and Mayan communities gather in Guatemala City to protest extractive industries in Guatemala. EFE/Saúl Martínez


The Fenix mine in El Estor on September 30, 2014, only a few months after it began formal extractive operations. Photo © James Rodríguez