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Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Japan


Description:

On March 11th of 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 on Ritcher scale hit the Japanese East coast, damaging severely the area around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant.  In 1961 the town councils of Futaba and Ōkuma had voted to invite Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) to build a nuclear power plant on the border of the two towns, which are now empty of their inhabitants. The earthquake knocked out the Fukushima complex’s cooling systems , causing hydrogen explosions and meltdowns at three reactors. The accompanying radiological release was rated at Level 7, the highest on the scale and on par with Chernobyl. This is the major nuclear environmental disaster in recent history. The plant began its construction in 1967 and its operations in 1971, it was designed by General Electric Company and built and managed by the Japanese company TEPCO.  Although it was known that tsunamis of more than 30 meters could occur in the region, the plant had only a 6 meter containment wall and many essential systems were located in flood areas. During the days after the accident, some radioactive elements escaped from Fukushima were identified around the world. The accident caused the release of radioactive material into the sea for a long time. TEPCO hoped to clean the water using a filtering system and started releasing water contaminated at low levels into the ocean. Tens of thousand of people were evacuated and will not be able to come back. Some have been compensated by TEPCO evidencing health damage such cancer and possibly malformations in newborns. The damage in biodiversity is very visible (butterflies, fish, and other animals).  TEPCO is under state management, totally unable to face the very large liabilities from the accidents. Some national and international outcomes of this accidente are positive for the environmental movement that has long been opposed to nuclear energy. All nuclear power stations in Japan were closed, and the attempts by the government after 2015 to start again some of them still encounter widespread opposition.  On March 15, 2011, Angela Merkel, German Chancellor  announced the preventive closure of seven of the 17 active nuclear power plants. In Spain, the organization Ecologistas en Acción called for the closure of the Garoña nuclear plant, other actions were taken in  Austria, Chile, Italy, Suitzerland. 

Basic Data

Name of conflict:Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Japan
Country:Japan
State or province: Fukushima
(municipality or city/town)Futaba and Ōkuma
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict: 1st level:Nuclear
Type of conflict: 2nd level :Nuclear power plants
Specific commodities:Electricity
One of the reactors used MOX fuel, with plutonium.
Uranium

Project Details and Actors

Project details:

- Total power of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant was 4.7 GW.

-The radioactive leakage to the sea constitutes a serious and unprecedented fact that introduces a new variable to this kind of accidents. The contamination will affect the marine ecosystems and it’s very difficult yet to evaluate its effects.

-The tsunami disabled the use of both the primary circuit of refrigeration and the emergency systems. The heat of the reactors became very high due to lack of refrigeration. Sea water was used to cool them down, after explosions.

- The spent nuclear waste in pool outside one of the reactor buildings started to heat up again for some time, releasing radiactivity.

Level of Investment:3,200,000,000 (plant written off) ; 170,000,000,000 (damages value)
Type of populationUrban
Affected Population:unknown
Start of the conflict:11/03/2011
Company names or state enterprises:General Electric US (GE) from United States of America
Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) from Japan
Relevant government actors:International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Government of Japan, Japan’s Nuclear Regulation Authority,
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Metropolitan Coalition Against Nukes.

Friends of the Earth Japan (FoE)

Citizens' Nuclear Information Center.

Stop Rokkasho.

Hidankyo.

Sayonara Nuclear Power Plants.

Women from Fukushima Against Nukes.

Article 9 group.

Supporters: Greenpeace International

Conflict and Mobilization

IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Industrial workers
Informal workers
International ejos
Local ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Women
Local scientists/professionals
Religious groups
translation missing: en.m.mobilizing_groups.fisher_people
Forms of mobilization:Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
The anti-nuclear rallies held every Friday in front of the Prime Minister’s Office starting in March 2012 were able to draw some 200,000 protesters, according to the organizer, Metropolitan Coalition Against Nukes.

Impacts of the project

Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Food insecurity (crop damage), Soil contamination, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Other Environmental impacts
Potential: Genetic contamination, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity)
Other Environmental impactsSpecific impacts to the marine biodiversity
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Occupational disease and accidents, Other environmental related diseases, Accidents, Deaths, Other Health impacts
Other Health impactsPotential: increase in cancer rates.

Suicide rate increased abover normal among the displaced people.
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Specific impacts on women
Potential: Militarization and increased police presence

Outcome

Project StatusStopped
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Land demarcation
Migration/displacement
Application of existing regulations
Project cancelled
International Outcomes: German Chancellor announced the preventive closure of seven of the 17 active nuclear power plants.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:-Despite some notable successes in cleaning up the site, tens of thousands of people are still displaced, work conditions at the plant have been dangerous, storing the accumulating radioactive water is an ongoing concern.

-Fukushima Daiichi disaster increased the awareness of nuclear risks worldwide. It helped to stop the German nuclear industry.

-After the disaster, Japan stopped nuclear power plants but in 2016 there is a debate of whether to reopen some of them.

Sources and Materials

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Greenpeace Report: Fukushima Fallout. Nuclear business makes people pay and suffer
http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/publications/nuclear/2013/FukushimaFallout.pdf

Lessons from Fukushima
http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/publications/nuclear/2012/Fukushima/Lessons-from-Fukushima.pdf

Japan´s compensation System for Nuclear Damage
https://www.oecd-nea.org/law/fukushima/7089-fukushima-compensation-system-pp.pdf

Nadine Ribault y Thierry Ribault, Les Sanctuaires de l'abîme - Chronique du désastre de Fukushima, Éditions de l'Encyclopédie des Nuisances, 2012
https://www.amazon.fr/Sanctuaires-lab%C3%AEme-Chronique-d%C3%A9sastre-Fukushima/dp/2910386406

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

Description of groups opposing nuclear power in Japan before and after March 2011
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-nuclear_power_movement_in_Japan

The Fukushima Disaster - WISE international
https://wiseinternational.org/campaign/fukushima-disaster

3 nuclear reactors melted down after quake, Japan confirms
http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/06/06/japan.nuclear.meltdown/

El coste de desmantelar Fukushima y de las compensaciones se duplicará
http://www.lavanguardia.com/internacional/20161128/412224016230/coste-desmantelar-fukushima-duplicar.html

Nuclear Power in Japan
http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-g-n/japan-nuclear-power.aspx

Status of the Nuclear Reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/03/16/world/asia/reactors-status.html

Fukushima Daiichi Status Updates
https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/focus/fukushima/status-update

Tank Has Leaked Tons of Contaminated Water at Japan Nuclear Site
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/21/world/asia/300-tons-of-contaminated-water-leak-from-japanese-nuclear-plant.html

The Ecologist, Fukushima: thousands have died, thousands more will die. Dr Ian Fairlie. 17th August 2015
http://www.theecologist.org/News/news_analysis/2984986/fukushima_thousands_have_died_thousands_more_will_die.html

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Fukushima Nuclear Disaster - New National Geographic Documentary
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YqqcNSFpiIA

The Fukushima Nuclear Accident documentary.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-5W7eEX-u3U

12 March 2013. Christian and civic groups in Japan seek worldwide solidarity for Fukushima. By Hisashi Yukimoto
http://www.doam.org/index.php/projekte/frieden-und-sicherheit/fukushima-2011/1805-fukushima-2jahre-danach-civic-groups

Other documents

Fukushima Nuclear plant
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/t1larg.nuclear.plant.air.photo.service.jpg

Protests against Fukushima Nuclear Plant
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Los-papeles-secretos-de-Fukushima.jpg

Other comments:"The Fukushima nuclear accident marks the end of the‘nuclear safety’ paradigm. " Greenpeace Report, 2012.

Meta information

Contributor:Grettel Navas & JMA, EnvJustice Project
Last update03/12/2016

Images

 

Fukushima Nuclear Meltdown

Fukushima Nuclear Meltdown

Fukushima Nuclear plant

 

Protests against Fukushima Nuclear Plant