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Special Economic Zone Hosur – GMR Krishnagiri Special Investment Region, TN, India


Description:

Tamil Nadu State government through its executing agency Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation (TIDCO) planned to establish a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) near Hosur, in Krishnagriri district of Tamil Nadu. TIDCO had obtained `in-principle' approval from the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India for establishing this SEZ. In 2006 the estimated cost of the proposed SEZ was about Rs. 512 crore. PricewaterHouseCoopers a global consultancy firm had conducted feasibility study of the SEZ in 2005. The district administration had also sent a proposal to the TN Government to get the administrative sanction for the project. Initially, the district administration had identified 1,053 hectares of land in the following villages; Bairamangalam, Kundumanapalli in Denkanikottai taluk and Achettipalli, Onnalvadi and Senamoa villages in Hosur taluk. [1].

In September 2006, thousands of farmers from the nearby villages in of the proposed site protested against the SEZ at Bairamangalam. The local Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) and Village Heads (panchayat president) leaded the movement. According to the protesters, the revenue officials have shown these lands as unproductive dry land. However, the proposed site is highly fertile and cultivable land. The villagers solely depend on agriculture and they do not have any other means of earnings. So, they are not willing to give up their land. They proposed the government to acquire another site, instead of taking possession of agricultural land. They suggested the government can acquire about 7,500 acres of “poromboke land” (government land), which was located nearby for setting up SEZ [2].

Basic Data

Name of conflict:Special Economic Zone Hosur – GMR Krishnagiri Special Investment Region, TN, India
Country:India
State or province:Tamil Nadu
(municipality or city/town)Town-Hosur, District - Krishnagriri
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict: 1st level:Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of conflict: 2nd level :Land acquisition conflicts
Other industries
Specific commodities:Land

Project Details and Actors

Project details:

This multi-product Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is located at the villages of Bairamangalam, Kundumanapalli in Denkanikottai taluk and Achettipalli, Onnalvadi and Senamoa villages at Hosur taluk in Krishnagiri District. About 4.300 acres of land have been identified in Krishnagiri District for the SEZ purpose. Although the site is located in southern state of Tamil Nadu, the place is closer to Bangalore and about 90 kilometer from New Bangalore International Airport at Devanahalli. The estimated project cost is about Rs. 2,300 Crores. The project is jointly developed by Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation (TIDCO) along with GMR infrastructure Ltd. GMR infrastructure Ltd acts as JV Partner to implement this SEZ. The SEZ will be product based and preference will be given to Information Technology, ITES, food processing, engineering and other types of industries. The project will generate about 70,000 employments once it is completed [4,5].

Project area:1000
Level of Investment:$378,671,398 (INR 2300 Crore)
Type of populationSemi-urban
Affected Population:30,000-40,000
Start of the conflict:2006
Company names or state enterprises:Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation (TIDCO) from India - Executor
GMR Group (GMR) from India - Executor
Relevant government actors:Government of Tamil Nadu
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Movement Against SEZs (MAS) Local Villagers

Local Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA)

Conflict and Mobilization

IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Development of alternative proposals
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches

Impacts of the project

Environmental ImpactsVisible: Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity)
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Loss of livelihood, Land dispossession
Potential: displacement, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures

Outcome

Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Strengthening of participation
Application of existing regulations
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Development of alternatives:For the proposed SEZ, about 5,000 families were dependent on the acquired land for livelihood. The land is highly fertile and most of them are depend on agriculture as their sole means of living. So, land owners whose lands fall in the SEZ area have urged the government not to take over the land.

The farmers proposed the government to acquire another site, instead of taking possession of agricultural land. They suggested the government can acquire about 7,500 acres of “poromboke land”(vested government land and not privately owned) [2].
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The area acquired for SEZ purpose is a cultivable land. Many villagers have been cultivating the land for generations. It is their sole means of livelihood. This sole source of livelihood has acquired by the government because the outdated government land records and surveys had earlier classified the area as unproductive and 'dry land'. Like other SEZ project where government assured the land losers of employment is not possible. It is difficult to employ unskilled local workers in the SEZ projects where it requires highly skilled specialized manpower. Also, beside the cultivable lands, other livelihood people lost has not been considered [3]

Sources and Materials

Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
http://indiacode.nic.in/acts-in-pdf/302013.pdf

SEZ Act, 2005
http://sezindia.nic.in/writereaddata/pdf/SEZ%20Act,%202005.pdf

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

[1] SEZ to be established near Hosur at Rs. 512 cr.
http://archive.today/afTYR#selection-261.1-261.48

[2] Farmers protest against SEZ at Bairamangalam
http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-tamilnadu/farmers-protest-against-sez-at-bairamangalam/article3072816.ece

[3] Villagers protest razing of houses for SEZs
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/Villagers-protest-razing-of-houses-for-SEZs/articleshow/3794644.cms

[4] Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation (TIDCO) (Hosur SEZ)
http://www.tidco.com/sez3.html

[5] Krishnagiri Special Investment Region
http://gksl.gmrgroup.in/about-gksir.aspx

SEZs: The great land grab
http://currentnews.emsme.in/2010/08/02/sezs-the-great-land-grab/

GMR Infra expedites SEZ land acquisition
http://www.deccanherald.com/content/430391/gmr-infra-expedites-sez-land.html

GMR to raise Rs 550-cr by selling SEZ land
http://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/gmr-to-raise-rs-550-cr-by-selling-sez-land-113070500012_1.html

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

101 East - India's Special Economic Zones Part 1
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aviE1eMcbIk

101 East - India's Special Economic Zones - Part 2
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xg8bOffejD4

Other documents

The land identified for the Special Economic Zone near Hosur Source : http://archive.today/afTYR#selection-307.15-307.75
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/d4731f936e0f8d320bf1baa40c1ec6a53932e030.jpg

Meta information

Contributor:Swapan Kumar Patra
Last update17/02/2015

Images

 

The land identified for the Special Economic Zone near Hosur

Source : http://archive.today/afTYR#selection-307.15-307.75