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High-speed train Bangkok- Nong Khai, Thailand


Description

For years, several Thai governments announced different high-speed train projects that would link the capital to the north and Laos, and ultimately to China. However, most of them stalled for years due to legal issues or lack of funding. In July 2017, the Thai government paved the way to start the construction of the first of those projects that would connect Bangkok and the northeastern city of Nakhon Ratchasima, and that will eventually reach Nong Khai on the border with Laos. The project, that will cost USD 5.2 billion, is linked to the One Belt One Road Initiative, launched by the Chinese government to connect China with the rest of Asia, Europe, and Africa [1]. 

There has been a lot of controversy surrounding the project due to the rushed pace the government took to approve it after two years of delays related to legal obstacles. These obstacles were cleared in June 2017 by the government, under the control of a military junta since May 2014, using the so-called article 44, a constitutional provision that allows the military to pass any measure “for the sake of reforms in any field” overriding the normal legislative process. Thus, the government exempted Chinese engineers from passing an examination to get a license to work in the country, something required by law [2]. Due to the controversy, the government later announced that they would have to pass the test. The use of Section 44 also saved the project from being scrutinized by a procurement committee, as required by law for all projects worth more than 5 billion baht (US$150 million) [3].

The government has also used its absolute powers to allow the conversion of designated farmland (known as Sor Por Kor) to build the infrastructure, what will result in expropriations of farmers. According to the government, a total of 2,815 rai (450 hectares) will be expropriated in northern Bangkok, parts of Ayutthaya and Saraburi, and Nakhon Ratchasima's Pak Chong district [4]. The government said that the victims will be compensated but they didn't specify the amount of the compensation. 

The project will also encroach national forest reserves, a highly controversial decision due to the aggressive campaign launched by the government against encroachment in this kind of area that has affected local communities [5]. Activists also complain that the environmental impact assessment was insufficient. 

In September 2017, the Thai government signed two contracts with two Chinese state companies for the design of the project and the hiring of technical advisers, but the names were not made public [6]. Construction started in December 2017 [7]. 

The first stage of the high-speed line between Bangkok and Nakhon Ratchasima will run 250km but the entire route to the border with Laos will be 607 kilometers long and is due to be completed by 2022. The line will also connect to the deep sea port of Map Ta Phut in the Eastern part of the country [8]. The project will be financed by the Thai government, while China will provide design and engineering expertise.

Basic Data

NameHigh-speed train Bangkok- Nong Khai, Thailand
CountryThailand
ProvinceBangkok, Nakhon Ratchasima, Ayutthaya, Saraburi,
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level

Source of Conflict

Type of Conflict (1st level)Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Specific CommoditiesPassenger transportation

Project Details and Actors

Project DetailsInvestment: USD 5.2 billion

Lenght of the line:

- Bangkok - Nakhon Ratchasima [phase 1] : 250 kilometres

- Total lenght: Bangkok - Nong Khai: 607 kilometres
Project Area (in hectares)450
Level of Investment (in USD)5,200,000,000
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Start Date01/05/2017
Company Names or State EnterprisesState Railway of Thailand (SRT) from Thailand - Operator
China Railway Design Corp (CRDC) from China - Design
Relevant government actorsMinistry of Transport of Thailand, National Council for Peace and Order (Thailand), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersEastern People's Network, Four Regions Slum Network

The Conflict and the Mobilization

Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LOW (some local organising)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingLocal ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationDevelopment of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Objections to the EIA
Public campaigns

Impacts

Environmental ImpactsPotential: Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Land dispossession
Potential: Displacement, Loss of landscape/sense of place

Outcome

Project StatusUnder construction
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseMigration/displacement
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.There was barely any public information before the construction was initiated. Affected communities did not have time to respond.

Sources and Materials

Links

[5] Government allows railway project to encroach on protected land, Isaan Record, June 17 2017
https://isaanrecord.com/2017/06/17/government-allows-railway-project-encroach-protected-land/

[6] Thailand signs deals with Chinese state firms for high-speed railway, Reuters, September 6, 2017
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-thailand-china-railway/thailand-signs-deals-with-chinese-state-firms-for-high-speed-railway-idUSKCN1BH0YW

[4] Thai-China rail project: Korat in just 77 minutes, Bangkok Post, July 12 2017
https://www.bangkokpost.com/learning/advanced/1285851/thai-china-rail-project-korat-in-just-77-minutes

[8] Thai-Chinese rail project falls in price. Bangkok Post, March 23, 2018
https://www.bangkokpost.com/news/general/1433350/thai-chinese-rail-project-falls-in-price

[1] Thailand approves long-delayed US$5.2b rail link to China, South China Morning Post, July 11 2017
http://www.scmp.com/news/asia/southeast-asia/article/2102217/thailand-approves-long-delayed-us52bn-rail-link-china

[3] Thailand chases Chinese money, but at what Cost, South China Morning Post, July 23 2017
http://www.scmp.com/week-asia/society/article/2102934/thailand-chases-chinese-money-what-cost

[7] After delays, ground broken for Thailand-China railway project, Reuters, December 21, 2017
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-thailand-china-railway/after-delays-ground-broken-for-thailand-china-railway-project-idUSKBN1EF1E6

[2] Academics concerned over Chinese exemptions for high-speed rail project, The Nation, June 17 2017
http://www.nationmultimedia.com/news/national/30318291

Other Documents

Map of the cooperation on the Thailand's railway infrastructure development between Thailand and China Map of the cooperation on the Thailand's railway infrastructure development between Thailand and China, including the line between Bangkok and Nakhon Ratchasima
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/railway_banner.jpg

Meta Information

ContributorLaura Villadiego, Carro de Combate, [email protected]
Last update14/06/2018

Images

 

Map of the cooperation on the Thailand's railway infrastructure development between Thailand and China

Map of the cooperation on the Thailand's railway infrastructure development between Thailand and China, including the line between Bangkok and Nakhon Ratchasima