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Iron ore mining project Pedra de Ferro in Caetité, BA, Brazil


Since 2006, the company Bahia Mineração (BAMIN) is developing a large iron ore mining project in Caetité in the south of Bahia, one of the new mining frontiers in Brazil. BAMIN was formed by the Indian company Zamin Ferrous specially for exploiting iron ore in Bahia. Between 2008 and 2010, all its shares were acquired by the Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC) from Kazakhstan, which was later transformed in the Eurasian Resources Group (ERG), holding company based in Luxembourg. The project, named Pedra de Ferro (iron stone), was designed to have its iron ore transported by the Brazilian West-East Integration Railroad (FIOL), which is being built by the Federal Government, and by the South Port (Ilhéus, Bahia), which is being built by the Bahia Government in partnership with BAMIN itself – both large enterprises responsible for various conflicts in southern Bahia.

Even before the environmental licensing process, BAMIN purchased land from residents of traditional communities and public lands in Caetité, collectively used as pasture, source of medicinal herbs and firewood. The letter by Comissão Pastoral da Terra describing the public hearings for the presentation of the Environmental Impact Report held in July 2009 in the cities of Brumado, Caetité, Malhada and Pindaí even spoke of the "disappearance of black communities" in the region. According to the letter, at the hearings, the civil society of southwestern Bahia stood against the whole enterprise surrounding the Caetité iron ore project, including the railroad and the port in Ilhéus (Comissão Pastoral da Terra, 2009). However, in spite of the manifestations contrary to the project, BAMIN obtained the localization and installation licenses in 2010 and the operating license in 2014, with construction beginning in 2012. At the same time, also, manifestations in opposition to the project grew significantly.

In 2011, two regional meetings in Bahia assembling farmers, trade unions, social movements and traditional communities reinforced opposition to mining in the region. In the first, the Affected by Mining in the São Francisco River Basin emphasized the impacts of mining on water pollution and depletion, defending “the right to priority use of water by communities” (Encontro dos Atingidos e Atingidas pela Mineração na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio São Francisco, 2011). In the other, assembling the Affected by BAMIN-FIOL-South Port (Bahia), was produced a letter rejecting the complex of projects being implemented in the State of Bahia for exploration and export of iron ore. Accordingly to the letter, “The works are being licensed and executed in total disregard for the nature and life of the populations that surround them (...). Thousands of families from Caetité to Ilhéus are threatened with losing their homes and fields of work for the execution of these projects, which will only benefit a foreign company” (Encontro dos Atingidos e Atingidas pela BAMIN-FIOL-Porto Sul, 2011).

In addition, the growing dissatisfaction with BAMIN in Caetité resulted in an increasing mobilization of local communities. On July 3, 2013, about 150 people closed a side road that served as access to the works of BAMIN and FIOL (as well as wind power plants being installed in the region). In August, religious black communities of Caetité won the reinstatement of the possession of the Terreiro de Axé Ilé Cicongo Roxo Mucumbe de H’Anzambi, whose area had been appropriated by the mining company, but had been declared as Brazilian afrocultural patrimony in 2006. Finally, also in 2013, on September 17, local communities prevented the entry of 30 workers from BAMIN in the area of the sources of Pedra de Ferro River, where they intended to clear part of the native forest (see Map of Environmental Justice and Health in Brazil, Fiocruz).

Since the continuation of the project seemed inevitable, one of the main concerns of local communities was the construction of a tailings dam at the Permanent Preservation Area (APP) of the Pedra de Ferro River, located in Caetité and Pindaí (BA), where 32 springs feed the river responsible for the water supply of families in the municipalities of the semi-arid Caetité, Pindai, Licínio de Almeida and Ibiassucê. In contrast to the Environmental Impact Report, which stated that only 3 families were supplied by these waters, the survey of Comissão Pastoral da Terra found that more than 230 families were supplied daily by them and that 3,000 families of the municipality of Pindaí received water from the same place in the dry season through tank trucks (Comissão Pastoral da Terra, 2014).

In response to such problems, in addition to those already described (expropriation of territories of traditional families, enclosures of areas of collective use, etc.), the first Popular Assembly of Mining in Bahia was held in the municipality of Pindaí (neighboring Caetité) in July 2017. It had an important participation of the local community with more than 300 people attending the assembly. Objectively, the referrals and proposals of the assembly were the convening of a public hearing between government agencies and impacted communities, immediate suspension of the tailings dam license, recognition of public lands, compliance with the constraints imposed on BAMIN, especially related to relocations of traditional communities (Assembleia Popular da Mineração, 2017).

In October 2017, communities in conflict with Bamin won a first victory. In response to one of the community demands, the Public Ministry recommended that BAMIN not install the tailings dam in the Permanent Preservation Area. According to prosecutor Luciana Khoury, the installation of the dam at the site "could have serious impacts on the springs and waterways" and "cause serious damage to the traditional way of life of communities (...) living in the region." BAMIN should then presente alternatives to the dam and the sterile pile locations to the Public Prosecutor's Office, as well as keep intact the native vegetation of the entire Permanent Preservation Area and promote the complementation of Environmental Impact Studies (MAM – Movimento pela Soberania Popular na Mineração, 2017a). In order to see these recommendations met, the communities decided to press Institute of Environment and Water Resources (INEMA) of Bahia through an occupation of the public agency on November 27, 2017. Although the results related to the recommendations are still uncertain, INEMA has committed to send a specialized technical team to oversee the BAMIN project (MAM, 2017b).

Basic Data

Name of conflict:Iron ore mining project Pedra de Ferro in Caetité, BA, Brazil
State or province:Bahia
Location of conflict:Caetité and Pindaí
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Tailings from mines
Land acquisition conflicts
Mineral ore exploration
Dams and water distribution conflicts
Specific commodities:Iron ore

Project Details and Actors

Project details

Pedra de Ferro Project was designed to produce 20 million tons of iron ore per year. The Pedra de Ferro project installation really encompasses a 700km area from the Sao Francisco river course to the port in Ilheus, Bahia. The central conflict is connected to potential water impacts due to the mineral extraction along with the project to build a tailings dam inside a permanent conservation area. The forecast is that during the operation stage the project will employ 1800 people directly, and up to 4500 people in the implementation stage.

Bahia Mineracão (BAMIN) is leading Pedra de Ferro project, which is connected to two other projects: a port construction in Ilheus (Bahia) sponsored by Bahia Government and a railway construction connecting Tocantins to Bahia state managed by VALEC. BAMIN's capital is now controlled by the Eurasian Resource Group (ERG). ERG has incorporated the Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC)'s assets in 2013 after a corporate scandal involving corruption in their the Middle East and African operations. Previously, ENRC was BAMIN main shareholder.

Pedra de Ferro project has been very controversial since 2009 when the Agência Nacional de Águas (Brazilian water agency) granted BAMIN the permit to collect water from the Sao Francisco river course. This process included the resettlement of 52 local people.

The mine project has started its licence processes in 2010, and in 2014 granted the licence to operate (the licence has 3 years duration). However, the project is been on hold due to its feasibility dependence on the global mineral market price and also in the constructing of the logistic complex attached to it.

Since 2013, Comissão Pastoral da Terra (CPT) in Bahia has been visiting the nearby communities and reporting an increase in conflicts over the years.

In 2017 conflicts around the project were intensified due to the tailing dams construction in the region. Since Fundão dam failure in Mariana, Minas Gerais, communities nearby potential and current tailings dams are worried about the risks and impacts associated with this way to store mineral extraction byproducts. Communities in Caetité and Guanambi have been holding meetings to oppose the dam construction and trying to mobilize unions and local authorities to support their case.

On 3 October 2017, the Bahia's prosecutor office has officially recommended BAMIN not to build the tailings dam in Pedra de Ferro permanent conservation area. The prosecutor office has recommended also that BAMIN should present alternative location to the tailings dam project. BAMIN will have to improve the project's overall social and environmental impacts' reach, too, since the assessment provided by the company was not considered consistent by the prosecutor in charge at that moment.

Later in November 2017, MAM activists invaded the local environmental agency headquarters denouncing BAMIN impacts on communities regarding water and fruits and vegetable issues.

Project area:3,926
Level of Investment:3,000,000,000
Type of populationRural
Affected Population:10,000
Start of the conflict:28/07/2009
Company names or state enterprises:Eurasian Resources Group (ERG) from Kazakhstan
Bahia Mineração (BAMIN) from Brazil - BAMIN started and developed the Pedra de Ferro Project
Zamin Ferrous from India
Relevant government actors:Ministry of Transport
Federal Government
VALEC/Ministry of Transports
Bahia State Goverment
Terceira Câmara Cível do TJ/BA
Instituto do Meio Ambiente e Recursos Hídricos (INEMA).
Prosecutor Office in Bahia (Ministerio Publico da Bahia)
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:MAM – Movimento pela Soberania Popular na Mineração (
CPT - Comissão Pastoral da Terra (
Associação de Advogados de Trabalhadores Rurais

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Trade unions
Religious groups
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Referendum other local consultations
Occupation of buildings/public spaces


Environmental ImpactsVisible: Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Air pollution, Noise pollution, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Potential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Mine tailing spills
Health ImpactsPotential: Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Increase in violence and crime, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..)


Project StatusUnder construction
Conflict outcome / response:Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
Court decision (failure for environmental justice)
Court decision (undecided)
Strengthening of participation
Under negotiation
Development of alternatives:The main proposals discussed at the Popular Assembly of Mining for water and life protection (June 3, 2017) are: immediate suspension of the tailings dam license; recognition of public lands; the fulfillment of the conditions established in the licensing process for the relocated families, respect for the environment, land and water. The Assembly was organized by Movimento pela Soberania Popular na Mineração ( MAM), Comissão Pastoral da Terra (CPT) and the Rural Workers' Unions of Pindaí.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Briefly explain:In response to the mobilizations of the communities around the project, the Bahia Public Prosecutor's Office, in October 2017, recommended that the Bamin tailings dam should not be implanted in the Permanent Preservation Area (APP) Pedra de Ferro River, located in Caetité and Pindaí (BA). However, the completion of the project seems inevitable and the final outcome of the conflict, even in relation to tailings dam, is still uncertain. The conflict is characterized by several judicial disputes, especially land disputes with traditional communities and local farmers. While BAMIN is advancing on getting licences, there is a lot of resistance over these decisions, some with the support of the local public prosecutor office.

Sources & Materials

Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

The State Prosecutor Office recommended BAMIN not to construct a tailings dam in Pedra de Ferro permanent conservation area

The Justice Department in Bahia suspends judicial injunction against Joao Barroca community

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Academic paper on land dispute in the region. PARECER DA NASCENTE DO RIACHO PEDRA DE FERRO NOS MUNICÍPIOS DE CAETITÉ E PINDAÍ-BAHI. Simposio Baiano de Geografia Agraria, 3-5 Julho 2017


PINDAÍ- BAHIA, BRASIL. Fernanda Oliveira Rodrigues / [email protected]/ Wesley Borges Costa/ [email protected] Revista Pegada,17 (1) Julho 2016.

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

Popular victory: prosecutor recommends that Bamin not implant tailings dam in Permanent Preservation Area (MAM, 2017a)

Map of Environmental Justice and Health in Brazil (Fiocruz/Brazil). Description of the conflict in Caetité related to Bamin's iron ore Project.

Letter - Popular Assembly of Mining, organized in Pindaí (Bahia), June 3, 2017

Letter - Comissão Pastoral da Terra describing hearings in southwestern Bahia (July 2009)

Letter - Territorial and Environment Committe, December 20, 2009. Letter rejecting the iron ore project in Caetité.

Letter - Atingidos pela Bamin-Fiol-Porto Sul (Ilhéus, Bahia, October 28, 2011)

Occupation at the headquarters of Inema is a result of the political organization of communities (MAM, 2017b)

Database of the Mineral Technology Center (Ministry of Science Technology and Education, Brazil) that presents case studies on socio-environmental effects of mining in Brazil.

CPT Bahia helps communities impacted by mining project to create georeferenced maps with the delimitation of areas of common use (Comissão Pastoral da Terra, 2014)

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Video about communities that depend on rivers whose springs may be compromised by the Bamin Project.

Pedra de ferro project -BAMIN

BAMIN: tire as mãos da nossa água!

A brief timeline on Pedra de Ferro project

Other documents

Popular Assembly of Mining in Pindaí (Bahia) Popular Assembly of Mining in Pindaí (Bahia) on June 3, 2017.

Occupation of INEMA (Institute of Environment and Water Resources of Bahia) Occupation of INEMA (Institute of Environmental and Water Resources of Bahia) by farmers and social movements in Alto Sertão da Bahia (Bahia), on November 27, 2017.

Meta information

Contributor:Beatriz Macchione Saes, Usp, [email protected] / M. Galvao Lyra
Last update27/04/2018



Popular Assembly of Mining in Pindaí (Bahia)

Popular Assembly of Mining in Pindaí (Bahia) on June 3, 2017.

Occupation of INEMA (Institute of Environment and Water Resources of Bahia)

Occupation of INEMA (Institute of Environmental and Water Resources of Bahia) by farmers and social movements in Alto Sertão da Bahia (Bahia), on November 27, 2017.