In 2004, Anvil Mining Limited was incorporated in the Northwest Territories, Canada, and listed on both the Toronto Stock Exchange and the Australian Stock Exchange. Anvil Mining Limited, through its wholly owned subsidiaries Anvil Management NL (Australia) and Anvil Mining Holdings Limited (United Kingdom), had a 90% holding in Anvil Mining Congo SARL, which owned Dikulushi Mine, one of the richest copper-silver mines in the world. The total of measured, indicated and inferred reserves of copper in Dikulushi mine were estimated by Anvil to 1,722,000 tons . However, although the mine is high grade, it is relatively small. Dikulushi mine was Anvil’s principal asset and source of revenue. In the six months to the end of 2004, out of a revenue of $16.2 million, Dikulushi accounted for $15.8 million or 98%. . The license for the exploitation of Dikulushi pit was granted during the Congolese civil war. The legal requirements to negotiate with Gecamines, the State-owned mining company, were overstep . The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), the World the Bank’s political risk insurer, approved the Dikulushi mining project and provided a $13.3 millions of political risk insurance to cover Dikulushi mine, including cover against damage resulting from war and civil disturbance . After Kilwa massacre, in August 2005 the World Bank President, Paul Wolfowitz, asked MIGA’s Compliance Advisor Ombudsman (CAO) to conduct an investigation of MIGA’s due diligence on the Dikulushi project . “‘The CAO report found systemic problems in the way MIGA, the Bank’s political risk insurer, does business. According to the report, MIGA evaluated the risks of conflict to its client and the company’s assets but did not adequately consider the risks that the project poses to local communities” . According to sources such as the UN MONUC, the UK-based Rights and Accountability in Development (RAID), Action Contre l’Impunité pour les Droits Humains (ACIDH) and ASADHO/Katanga (Association Africaine de Défense des Droits de l' Homme and many others, the Kilwa Incident of October 2004 implied the use made by the Congolese military of Anvil Mining’s logistic and personnel in a counter-offensive to crush insurgents in the town. About 100 people – the majority of them innocent civilians –have been killed by the Congolese Armed Forces (Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo – FARDC). The killings occurred during an operation to suppress a small-scale rebellion in Kilwa, a town of 48,000 inhabitants. Kilwa is located in Katanga Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), 350 km to the north of the regional capital, Lubumbashi. The town is close to Anvil’s Dikulushi mine. Kilwa is crucial to Anvil' s copper and silver mining operation, as it is a port on Lake Mweru from which the ore is shipped across to Zambia for processing. Dikulushi was operated by Anvil Mining from May 2002 until December 2008, when it was placed on care and maintenance due to the low prices of copper. In 2010, the pit was sold 90% of its shareholding in the Dikulushi mine to Mawson West Limited. The mine reopened in July that very same year . Dikulushi is one of the richest copper/silver mines in the world. In August 2011, Mawson announced the completion of a feasibility study concerning the exploitation of part of the remaining known in situ resource at Dikulushi through an open pit. Total measured and indicated mineral resources are estimated at 767.000 tons, with a grade of 6.6% copper and 179 g/t silver. By the end of 2013 Mawson started underground mining . Since January 2015, there is no longer industrial production at Dikulushi, Mawson West stated the mine was not economically viable anymore .