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King-King copper and gold mine in Pantukan, Compostela, Mindanao, Philippines


The open-pit King-King Copper-Gold Project operated by Nadecor and St. Augustine in Pantukan threatens the rich biodiversity of Southern Mindanao. The environmental group Panalipdan-SMR cited the 2013 NI 43-101-compliant Technical Report and Preliminary Feasibility Study of M3 Engineering & Technology (M3ENG), which clearly warned that King-King mining will affect twelve “vulnerable or critically endangered” species of the 253 native or endemic plant species present in the area, as defined by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List and the Philippine National Red List; six species endemic to Mindanao of the 74 bird species present in the area; and a total of 17 mammalian species and 10 reptilian species identified in the area. The report adds that several of the wildlife species found in the region “are listed as near-threatened or vulnerable by the IUCN, while others are protected by Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), including 11 bird species, two mammal species and five  reptile and amphibian species. The region is also home to the Philippine eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi, which will be further endangered as a result of these large-scale mining projects. The environmental group Panalipdan- SMR emphasized that the M3ENG report also highlights the impact of the project on the coastal and marine ecosystems in the area which is part of the eastern coast of Davao Gulf. Several species of sea turtles, dolphins, whales, and seabirds live in the area. The sea cow species and all species of sea turtle found in the region are listed as endangered.

To the threat to biodiversity is added the threats to human rights. In January 2016 human rights defender 60 years old Teresita Navacilla was killed. She was a member of the Save Pantukan Movement, a network of indigenous peoples from the Pantukan region in the Compostela Valley province (some of them, small scale miners)  fighting for the right to their ancestral lands, advocating for more stringent environmental protection in the country and opposing large-scale open pit mining by foreign corporations in Southern Mindanao. On 30 January 2016, three days after being shot,  Teresita Navacilla died in a hospital in Tagum City. She had spoken out against the launching of the King-king mining project in Pantukan. Environmental groups  warned that the project will adversely effect the livelihood and health of communities in the region, and threaten its biodiversity and marine and coastal ecosystems.

 On 27 January 2016, two unidentified armed men attacked her. One of the perpetrators entered the human rights defender's store in Purok Bardown and shot her twice, before both men drove away on motorcycle. The attack was reportedly perpetrated by soldiers from the 46th Infantry Battalion, which has been assigned to secure the King-king mining project. Inhabitants of the Compostela Valley report that the soldiers have arrested and assaulted members of indigenous people Mansaka and other civilians from the region that have opposed the mining project. Mr Seigfred Tubalado, commander of the 46th Infantry Battalion, denied any involvement of his soldiers in the killing of Teresita Navacilla.  It is alleged that the attack on Teresita Navacilla was an attempt to silence her opposition to the King-king mining project. The project is being carried out in the Puntakan region by two large-scale international companies, Nationwide Development Corporation (NADECOR) and St. Augustine Gold and Copper Limited (SAGCL). The King-king tenement is the second largest copper and gold deposit in the Philippines. Under an agreement signed in 1992 with the Government of the Philippines, NADECOR received the exclusive right to explore, develop and exploit minerals within the area comprising the King-king deposit. In Spring 2016 NADECOR, in partnership with SAGCL, was planning to begin mining activities. It also plans to scale-up its operations in the near future, leading them to cover 1,656 hectares in the Pantukan region.

 The death of Teresita Navacilla brings the number of extrajudicial killings in the region of Southern Mindanao to four in the month of January 2016. The source for this information, Front Line Defender, condemned the killing of Teresita Navacilla, motivated by her legitimate and peaceful activities in the defence of environmental rights and rights of indigenous communities inhabiting the Compostela Valley. Front Line Defenders also reiterated its extreme concern for the growing number of extrajudicial killings of human rights defenders in the country and the languishing of these cases in impunity.

On her part, Hanimay Suazo, secretary general of human rights group Karapatan said the attack was an attempt to silence Navacilla for her opposition against the entry of Nadecor and St. Augustine Gold and Copper Limited.

“She is the 54th victim of extrajudicial killings in Southern Mindanao since 2010 and the fourth victim here in just one month,” said Suazo.  Suazo claimed that the attackers “could have come from the 46th IB, who have been on a rampage in Pantukan lately, arresting innocent civilians and portraying them as members of the New People’s Army, and assaulting human rights of progressive leaders in the area as well. They are targeting small scale miners, farmers and lumads of Mansaka tribe who are opposing the entry and full operation of Nadecor and St.

Augustine Mining Companies,” she said. There is a pattern of repression against environmentalists in the region, accusing them of membership of the NPA, a tested technique of the police and military to harass activists and citizens.

Basic Data

Name of conflict:King-King copper and gold mine in Pantukan, Compostela, Mindanao, Philippines
State or province:Compostela Valley, Mindanao
Location of conflict:Pantukan
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Mining exploration and/or ore extraction
Specific commodities:Gold

Project Details and Actors

Project details

The project is being carried out in the Pantukan region by two large-scale international companies, Nationwide Development Corporation (NADECOR) and St. Augustine Gold and Copper Limited (SAGCL). The King-king Copper-Gold Project is part of a Mineral Production Sharing Agreement (MPSA) between the Philippine government and the Nationwide Development Corporation (NADECOR), based in Manila. St. Augustine Copper-Gold Ltd (SAGCL), based in Spokane, Washington, USA, is managing the technical aspects of the project, which, if approved, would lead to the displacement of the local tribal populations.

The King-king tenement is the second largest copper and gold deposit in the Philippines. In Spring 2016 NADECOR, in partnership with SAGCL, was planning to begin mining activities leading them in future to cover 1,656 hectares in the Pantukan region. Gold deposits in Barangay Kingking alone is estimated to be at 10.3 million ounces with copper deposits of 5.4 billion pounds.

Project area:1600
Level of Investment for the conflictive project2,000,000,000
Type of populationRural
Start of the conflict:2012
Company names or state enterprises:Nationwide Development Corporation (NADECOR) from Philippines
St. Augustine Gold and Copper Limited (SAGCL) from United States of America
Relevant government actors:Government of Philippines
Army of Philippines
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Panalipdan-SMR, Philippines
Save Pantukan Movement
Human rights group Karapatan

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Artisanal miners
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Social movements
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Lumad indigenous peoples (Mansaka tribe). Human rights groups.
Forms of mobilization:Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Media based activism/alternative media
Public campaigns


Environmental ImpactsPotential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Mine tailing spills, Air pollution, Waste overflow
Health ImpactsPotential: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Occupational disease and accidents, Other Health impacts
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Increase in violence and crime, Militarization and increased police presence, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights
Potential: Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Loss of landscape/sense of place


Project StatusProposed (exploration phase)
Conflict outcome / response:Criminalization of activists
Deaths, Assassinations, Murders
Violent targeting of activists
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:Teresita Navacilla, a leader of the opposition to large scale mining, was shot in January 2016. She is one of several anti-mining leaders killed in the area.

Sources & Materials

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

King-king Technical Report NI 43-101 Preliminary Feasibility Study, conducted by M3 Engineering & Technology, Tucson, Arizona, US, issued on October 28, 2013, downloaded at…/NI-43-101_King-king_Rev.0-10-28…
M3 Engineering & Technology,

King-King copper mine seen to get approval next month, Reuters, October 30, 2015…/king-king-copper-mine-seen-to-…

Antimining activist dies after ComVal gun attack, Frinston L. Lim / @inquirerdotnet, Inquirer Mindanao / February 01, 2016

Report on the killing of Teresita Navacilla

Anti-mining woman activist dies three days after shooting; Karapatan condemns rise of killings, press release, 30 Jan. 2016

Woman anti-mining activist in Compostela Valley dies. Jan. 29, 2016 ZEA IO MING C. CAPISTRANO

CHR probes death of Navacilla, 60, questions motivation of killers, posted on February 8, 2016 by Ma. Cecilia Badian

THE COMMISSION on Human Rights (CHR) is now investigating the death of 60-year old Teresita S. Navacilla, a purok leader of Gumayan, Barangay Kingking, Pantukan in Compostela Valley. 8 February 2016.

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Anti-large scale mining activist killed in Compostela Valley,, January 30, 2016

Other comments:There are many killings of environmentalists in the Southern Mindanao region (and also in North Luzon), before and after the government of president Duterte in the Philippines. "Environmental group Kalikasan People's Network for the Environment (Kalikasan PNE) is alarmed over recent extrajudicial killings, illegal detention and other human rights violations allegedly carried out by military agents in North Luzon and Southern Mindanao."

Meta information

Last update21/10/2016
Conflict ID:2435