The company arrived in 1967, as Aracruz Florestal, and started to occupy lands and plant eucalyptus in the municipality of Aracruz, later on in the 1970s in Sao Mateus and Conceicao da Barra. In 1972, Aracruz Celulose was founded. In 1978 it opened its first pulp mill, in 1989 the second and in 2002 the third pulp mill.
Besides impacts on many other populations (indigenous, fisherfolk, peasants, workers), the quilombola population, descendants of African people brought in a forced way to Brazil in the past, and now recognized as traditional people has been severe. They lost land, their forest, water and work. About 30 communities live now in the region fenced by eucalyptus, struggling to get their lands back, based on constitutional land rights.