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Mondi Merebank Multifuel Boiler in Durban, South Africa


South Durban is a classic example of environmental racism owing to legacies from Apartheid, during which blacks and south Asians were forced to move to South Durban as cheap labor for oil, paper, and chemical industries. Mondi Paper Company, a paper mill owned by Anglo American, is the third worst local polluter, and has long been opposed by the community for its multifuel boiler/incinerator’s emissions contributing to high incidences of asthma and cancer [2]. 

Protesting Mondi began as early as 1997 against its illegal landfill, where it was dumping toxic ash from its incinerator that leaked into the broader environment and affected nearby residents. The local provincial office continuously delayed any legal action against Mondi. As such, the South Durban Community Environmental Alliance (SDCEA) pushed the Minister to act, asking if “the provincial office would have shown this much tolerance if the waste site had been established in upper-class white areas” [3]. Mondi, however, continued dumping and brushed off concerns that the ash was hazardous the the environment and human health. Residents thus conducted their own investigations that they published in August 1997, finding that the boiler ash contained heavy metals, selenium, chromium, cadmium, and arsenic, refuting Mondi’s studies that the ash was safe. Yet a year later in August 1998, the provincial office was still stalling action against Mondi. Subsequently, the SDCEA heavily campaigned for cleaner technology, also insisting that Mondi does not simply relocate the incinerator and its landfill to another poor neighborhood but rather address the environmental injustices themselves [3]. In 2001, residents demanded an outside health expert be brought in to assess the air quality and determine the effects of the proposed multi-fuel boiler. Requests were made directly to the company as well as through numerous media outlets, but neither Mondi nor the regulatory boards hired outside experts [4].

In September 2002, Mondi was granted a permit to build a new multifuel combuster for its incinerator [4].On November 19, 2002, the SDCEA, the Legal Resources Center, the Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives, the Merebank Residents' Association, and other local supporters, in addition to a mass public movement and media campaign, protested outside the Mondi plant’s gates in support of a legal appeal revoking the permit [1]. The appeal was both an attempt to use legislative provisions to block Mondi's plans as well as a rallying measure for community action, although there was some local support for Mondi because the paper mill provided jobs and incomes for many South Durban residents [4]. The protesters also argued against further air pollution and the plant’s use of outdated “dirty” technology [1]. 

According to the SDCEA leader Desmond D’Sa, the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs awarded the permit without a proper environmental impact assessment and thus did not take into account health concerns or environmental regulations [1]. As part of the Legal Resources Center’s court case, a 35-page appeal document compiled by Pole and Andrews and technical advisor Dr. Eugene Cairncross of Cape Town's Peninsula Technikon, suggests that approval of the Mondi burner “would be a retrogressive step that would perpetuate the existing high levels of industrial air pollution in South Durban” [5]. John Ratcliff, Mondi’s Operations Services Manager, received a memorandum from the protesters condemning the company’s failure to analyze and account for the environmental consequences of its technologies. However, the company responded that the multifuel boiler would would be able to burn all biomass generated during the papermaking process and that waste disposal to landfill would be reduced by almost 75 percent [1]. 

In 2004, groundWork submitted an appeal against the company, calling for mass international protest. The SDCEA organized community meetings, circulated a petition against the incinerator with over 5,000 signatures, and continued to make public appeals to both the company and to the Kwa-Zulu Natal province's Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs [4]. In 2005, the SDCEA began organizing "toxic tours" and invited the international community to bear witness to the environmental impact of Mondi and others in South Durban [2]. Despite the efforts of community organizations and support from several international organizations, Mondi finished building the new boiler in 2006 and is still operating today, though has recently suffered bad press from the court ruling that it may no longer continue withholding pay from workers during the coronavirus [4, 7].

Basic Data

Name of conflict:Mondi Merebank Multifuel Boiler in Durban, South Africa
Country:South Africa
State or province:KwaZulu-Natal
Location of conflict:Durban
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Industrial and Utilities conflicts
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Incinerators
Manufacturing activities
Specific commodities:Paper
Manufactured Products

Project Details and Actors

Project details

Mondi is the world’s 13th largest pulp and paper company, and was founded during South Africa’s apartheid regime in 1967 by Anglo American, one of the world’s largest mining companies [2]. Its 90t/h multifuel boiler burns up to 200,000 tons of coal, sludge, ash, and wood bark every year [5, 6]. The burning process generates steam that contributes the the plant’s power, the rest of which is supplied by coal. The contractor that built the incinerator was Babcock Engineering, which is also the company that built Sappi’s highly polluting Saiccor paper mill [6].

Level of Investment for the conflictive project66,442,585
Type of populationUrban
Start of the conflict:16/04/2006
End of the conflict:16/04/2006
Company names or state enterprises:Mondi Paper Company from South Africa
Anglo American from United Kingdom
Relevant government actors:KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Merebank Resident’s Association, the South Durban Community Environmental Alliance (SDCEA), Legal Resources Center, Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityMEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:International ejos
Local ejos
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of mobilization:Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches


Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Global warming, Soil contamination, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Occupational disease and accidents
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors
Potential: Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment


Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Corruption
Court decision (failure for environmental justice)
Court decision (undecided)
Strengthening of participation
Application of existing regulations
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:Despite many years of legal battles and activism, in the end those protesting against Mondi were not able to stop them from building a new boiler for their incinerator or get Mondi to invest in cleaner technologies.

Sources & Materials

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

[3] Environmental Justice in South Africa. Doublespeak in Durban: Mondi, Waste Management, and the Struggles of the South Durban Community Environmental Alliance (Peek 2002)

Mobilisation and protest: environmental justice in Durban, South Africa. Llewellyn Leonard &Mark Pelling. Local Environment. Pages 137-151 | Published online: 01 Mar 2010

[1] IOL. Mondi told to clean up its act (Newman 2002)

[2] WRM Bulletin. South Africa: Mondi and environmental racism (Lang 2006)

[4] Global Nonviolent Action Database. South Africans protest Mondi Paper’s multi-fuel boiler (Schlis 2011)

[5] IOL. Legal haze surrounds Mondi’s incinerator (Carnie 2002)

[6] Engineering News. New multifuel boiler for paper manufacturer (Moodley 2006)

[7] IndustriAll. South African Court blocks Mondi from exploiting workers (2020)

Meta information

Contributor:Dalena Tran, ICTA-UAB, [email protected]
Last update06/08/2020
Conflict ID:5154



Merebank paper mill

Photo: Chris Lang

Protest at Mondi

Photo: SA Sustainable Development