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Obudu International Passenger and Cargo Airport, Nigeria


On 4th May 2019 it was reported that the governor of Cross River State, Ben Ayade, had written to the clan heads of three villages in the Obudu local government area - Atikpe, Ikwomikwu and Okambi - appealing for their cooperation with the commencement and speedy completion of a new airport. The letter stated that the state government wanted to acquire 9 square kilometres of land from the three communities for the project, to be known as Obudu International Passenger and Cargo Airport (OIA) and claimed that land acquisition and a compensation process, in line with the Nigerian Land Use Act (2004), would commence immediately along with site preparation works such as land clearing developing an access road. CrossRiverWatch reported that most of the affected villagers they talked with did not share the governor’s view of the urgency of a new airport but were afraid of speaking publicly for fear of reprisals. One of the village chiefs told the reporter that the targeted three villages, which are among the smallest in Obudu, may disappear if such a large land area was taken for the airport, also saying, with a trembling voice “We are not even given the space to discuss or negotiate to raise our concerns. We are just sent letters and orders and asked to obey. They have started harassing and arresting people already for attempting to resist. We don’t know what is coming. That is our greatest fear.”[1]

Earth moving equipment was already on the land earmarked for the new airport, felling trees and destroying crops. Through their legal representatives, one of the three affected villages, Okambi, sent a letter to Governor Ayade threatening legal action against the state government if it failed to remove earth moving equipment from its land and pay fair compensation for destruction of farmland and crops. The letter, entitled “Unlawful Entry, Destruction Of Farm Crops And Encroachment Of Rural Agricultural Land Under The Ownership And Possession Of The People Of Okambi, Obudu” asserted that the leaders of the Okambi community are the legal owners of the farmland and residential land. The letter states that the community members are predominantly agrarian people for whom the land provides their food needs and livelihoods. It is the only arable land they possess. Okambi villagers said they had been awoken by earth moving operators who moved onto their land and began clearing topsoil, wantonly destroying farms and indiscriminately felling economic and other trees.

The Okambi community had not been informed that the state was embarking on a project of this magnitude. None of the families or individuals had been served with any notice revoking their land rights nor any notice of land acquisition. The only communication the villagers had received concerning construction of the airport had been the aforementioned letter to the three clan heads, which stated that the reason for not engaging stakeholders was the urgency for the project and necessity of its speedy completion. Okambi villagers countered this claim with the argument that government projects are carefully planned with people properly briefed and the procurement process is either publicized or undertaken directly by the government. The estimated monetary value of crops already destroyed by invading bulldozers was estimated at 500 million Naira (USD1,387,000). Persons purporting to be acting on behalf of the Ministry of Lands and Housing had been issuing very low amounts of compensation, ‘peanuts’, to people either as compensation or gratuity for relinquishing their land parcels.

The legal letter to the Governor also stated that people with no direct land holding within the proposed airport site had ‘entered into outrageous deals with your agents pretending to be representing the Community on the issue of appropriate compensation for the land taken’. The Pre-Action legal notice also said that the Clients ‘had made spirited attempts by mounting peaceful protest of the forceful takeover of their ancestral farmlands’ but that the agent of the government in charge of the airport project continued destruction of farmland ‘aided by men of the Nigeria Police Force who offer him security’.[2]

The Okambi Development Association (ODA) said that while it agreed with the decision to construct an airport in Obudu ‘due process was not followed in the manner used by representatives of the State Government to force land owners within the speculated airport vicinity to give up their land’. The ODA established a committee to work on the issue and said that some chiefs and high ranking executives of the village council had turned their back on the ODA’s work in the interests of the community. CrossRiverWatch pointed out that, in line with State procurement laws, the ‘Expression Of Interest For The Conduct Of Feasibility Studies, Design And Construction Of Obudu Cargo International Airport’, had been published in the 15th May 2019 edition of the Nigerian Chronicle Newspaper, but the expiry date for Expression of Interest was 8th May, one week before the publication date.[3]

A video published on 18th May 2019 shows women protesting against seizure of their land to build Obudu Airport.[4] An article published on the same day, by Adie Adugba, a resident of Ukambi (Okambi) village, ‘Who Needs A Third Airport In Cross River State?’ makes a compelling case against the project. He writes that the three villages had been given ‘ridiculous’ compensation of just 6 million Naira (USD16,644) for 9 square kilometres of land. Individuals had been ‘arbitrarily disbursing’ paltry sums for destroyed trees and farms: just 1,500 Naira (USD4) for every palm tree felled and between 5,000 and 15,000 Naira (USD 13.9 – 41.6) for each cassava and yam farm that had been destroyed. Adugba writes ‘I have watched with consternation and disbelief the uncanny acts of intimidation and humiliation of the people of Atiekpe, Ikwumikwu and Ukambi communities and the violation of the sanctity of their ancestral lands under the guise of constructing what might be the third airport in Cross River State’. The article calls for immediate and unconditional release of all community members who have been arrested. Community members will be sending letters to the United Nations, UNICEF, the British High Commission and American consulate.

Adugba estimates that 90 per cent of the land belonging to the three villages will have been seized by the state and that those remaining in the communities after the displacement will not have any farmland. This raises concerns that lack of farmland along with unclear boundaries resulting from the land clearing exercise will lead to conflict between neighbouring villages. Parts of the land remaining in the possession of the villages will be inaccessible and people will be separated from the burial sites of the ancestors. Doubts expressed by many in the affected communities over whether the real intention of the land clearance is for an airport are given credence by lack of information about the project, including on how airport construction will be funded. Land clearance began even though there is still no plan to disclose the contractor handling construction, nor to publish the non-technical summary of the EIA.[5] The need for and feasibility of a new airport is also called into question because an existing airport, Bebi Airstrip, is located only two kilometres away from Obudu township, maintained at State expense, recently renovated and fitted with an Instrument Landing System (ILS) .[1]

On 23rd May 2019 CrossRiverWatch reported that destruction of farmland for the proposed airport had claimed the life of Mr. Raphael A. Ushie, who had invested in a palm plantation in Ukambi. A community elder said: “On hearing that farmlands in neighbouring Atiekpe and Ikwomikwu had been demolished and same was going to commence in Ukambi, he rushed home to confront the bulldozer that was encroaching into his palm plantation. He arrived last Wednesday morning and went straight to the farm in his uniform and met the bulldozer nearing his plantation. He faced the operator and tried to prevent him from encroaching into his land before other community members joined him in the farm. He participated fully in the day’s protest and the demolition and collapsed after then. He was rushed to a hospital in Obudu. The matter couldn’t be handled there and he was moved to UCTH in Calabar where he passed on this morning.” CrossRiverWatch also reported that a second person, Mr. Andepibekong Atsua, had also collapsed after his farm was demolished and was critically ill in hospital.

Two political parties criticized flouting of procedures in land acquisition for the airport. Cross River State chair of the All Progressives Congress (APC) political party, Mr. Etim John, described the situation in Obudu as “A very pitiable development”, urged Obudu elites to come together to resolve the ongoing crisis to prevent further loss of lives and called for due process on the part of the government in acquiring the land and paying compensation, and also from community members protesting against land acquisition. Agba Jalingo, Cross River State chair of African National Congress (AAC) described the death of Raphael A. Ushie as “a blinker on the Governor’s conscience”. Regarding the airport he said: “As a Party we are opposed to the airport project because we do not see the need for it…Secondly there is no urgency about this project that should warrant the invasion of these community farmlands with such alacrity, when initial things like the EIA have not been done. It’s true that the government has a right to acquire land for public good. But there is also a due process of doing that and I don’t think it is too difficult for the Governor to follow.”

Chair of the Nigerian Bar Association, Dr. Emmanuel Idaka, called for dialogue between the two feuding parties, saying: “The facts of that airport matter are still very scanty and not clear. But the long and short is that if the governor wants to acquire the land, he should follow due process and pay adequate compensation to owners of the affected lands to avoid any confrontation that will lead to further loss of lives.”[6]

The Nigerian Meteorological Agency (MiMet) wrote to the Cross River State Government regarding the proposed Obudu Airport. The letter sought a meeting to discuss standards for the facility, pledged “its unalloyed and total support and commitment for the success of this proposed project regarding provision of meteorological services” and stated that that one of three sites that had been visited by experts from the ministry of aviation, including NiMet staff, had been found to be more suitable for siting an airport. The letter was dated 14th May 2019, a day before the State government published the invitation for Expression Of Interest, indicating that Governor Ayade may have proceeded with seeking approvals for the airport project without consultation.[7]

A video published on 26th May 2019 shows a teenager sending a message opposing the airport to Governor Ayade:

“Take the video with my face inside.

Tell him we say no.

Tell Ben that say non ooo.”[8]

On 28th May CrossRiverWatch reported that it had received information that a truck load of soldiers had invaded the Ukambi community. Soldiers had harassed, beaten and arrested some of the youths spearheading resistance against acquisition of their community land for the proposed airport.  Women rushed to protest harassment and arrest of two people, John Izaye and Emmanuel Undie, who had been forcibly taken away by soldiers without explanation. A video obtained by CrossRiverWatch shows a group of women playing a traditional gong, saying they are willing to also be arrested and that some of their chiefs had been bribed by Governor Ayade. The women vowed to continue to resist attempts to take over their farmland.[9]

On 29th May villagers informed CrossRiverWatch that more soldiers had arrived in Ukambi: five trucks filled with soldiers and a sixth with operatives of the Special Anti Robbery Squad (SARS). Villagers said the soldiers told them they came for peace and went straight to where women and youths were attempting to prevent bulldozers from demolishing their farmland. The person who had died had not yet been buried. A case of knife crime violence was also reported but CrossRiverWatch could not independently verify either the victim or the motive.[10] The Special Anti Robbery Squad (SARS), a branch of the Nigerian Police tasked with confronting violent crimes such as armed robbery and kidnapping and communal clashes. A 2016 report by Amnesty International accused SARS of regularly detaining young adults unlawfully and uncovered detention facilities across the country where people were tortured and forced to confess to crimes they did not commit.[11]

On 4th June 2019 people of Obudu protesting against the airport, under the aegis of Cross River Coalition Against Land Grabbing, issued a press release signed by the Coordinator and Secretary of the group, stating in part:

“Well, we are not against development per say, but would not fold our hands and see our heritage being forcefully taken away from us. The mass hectares of land being proposed for the airport is our farm lands and our means of livelihood. What are the alternatives? Nobody has told us.

“Ordinarily this would have been a welcome development as it would not only bring succour and facilitated development to Northern parts of the state. But considering the way and manner this administration of Ayade has been handling projects and making caricature of Cross Riverians, it has become imperative for us to ask questions concerning  the rationale behind building  another airport when we have Calabar Airport that is almost near comatose as only two flights maximum fly the route now…

 “We are entering into another circus show of constructing a Cargo Airport in Obudu. On whose land and whose expense is the airport? Is Ayade is really interested in developing the North, please we advice him to first complete the roads he started; renovate the RANCH Resorts to the standard former Gov Duke left it and then renovate the Bebi Airstrip to be functional and efficient.

“In view of the above stated facts we demand the immediate stoppage of the illegal acquisition of the people’s land in guise of building an airport, we also demand the immediate rehabilitation of the Ranch Resorts, Bebi Airstrip and completion of all roads in the North started by Gov Ayade”.[12]

In August 2019 Cross River State Commissioner

for Aviation, Dr. Jake Out Enyia, commended Governor Ayde for approving

additional payment of 87 million Naira (USD228,646) as compensation to owners

or properties in Atiekpe and Abonkib communities, over demolition of their

properties lying within the proposed Obudu Airport site. Dr. Enyia appealed to

owners of properties situated in Okambi and Ikwomikwo communities to be patient

as the verification exercise and payment would take place before the end of

August 2020. He also stated that airport works were progressing speedily. Clearing

of the site and removal of top soil had been completed, and cutting and filling

had commenced.[13]

On 2nd

March 2020 it was reported that one person had been killed and several others

injured after a clash over compensation for the proposed Obudu Cargo Airport.

Community sources said that youths attacked chiefs and elders, and the houses

belonging to them, whom they suspected of short-changing them in the

compensation sharing formula. Governor Ayade had recently approved payment of

500 million Naira (USD1,314,000) in compensation for 1,500 hectares of land

acquired for the airport. Six houses belonging to chiefs and elders were burned

but they escaped to safety. An eyewitness stated that the person killed in the

clash was a woman and the Police Public Relations Officer, Irene Ugbo,

confirmed the incident and that one person had died.[14]

On 30th December 2020 youths from

Obudu staged a peaceful protest rejecting the ongoing airport project, pledging

not to leave their ancestral homes. Protesters displayed many placards with

statements including:

“We don’t have land for airport”

“Ayade leave Okambi alone”

“We can’t lose our heritage”

“No to demolition of our land and houses”

The protest was in response to a public notice

from the Senior Special Advisor to the Governor on Major Projects, Paul Obi, issued

on 24th December 2020 and entitled ‘Clearing and Earthwork on the

Terminal Building Area’ requesting immediate relocation of affected people. The

eviction order triggered the protest by youths, who demanded an end to the

airport project and demanded to see Governor Ayade in person. A social media

post read:

“We say no to International Passenger and

Cargo Airport in our land, Okambi youths goes ballistic. When the going gets

tough the tough gets going. This is a perfect illustration of the dramae

presently unfolding in Cross River State.”

Okambi Development

Association (ODA)had refused the project and was in court with the State

Government and others over their role in what it termed land grabbing without

due compensation and other entitlements.[15]

On 5th

January 2021 Cross River Watch reported that three residents of the Okambi

community had been shot by a combined team of police officers and civilian

gunmen. A woman was shot in both legs, a young man

shot in the wrist and another young man shot in his elbow. Another young man

was beaten with a heavy stick by a Police officer, causing him to lose

consciousness for a while. Two people were arrested and detained. The shooting,

beating and arrests occurred in response to residents protest calling for a

halt to demolition of their homes without compensation to pave way for Obudu

Airport. A senior resident, whose name was withheld for security reasons, said:

“We mobilized our youths and women and went

there to tell them that they had to resettle us first and pay compensation

before the demolition of our homes, but they brought guns, Operation Akpakwu

and gangsters to shoot at us and chase us away while the bulldozers moved in.”

Operation Akpakwu, comprising personnel from

the Police, military and paramilitary forces, is a team established in December

2020 and operating in Cross River State to combat rising numbers of

kidnappings, gang warfare and armed robbery.

Another eyewitness said “it was indeed a

tragic morning in the Community as security operatives numbered in their

hundreds alongside some thugs and contractors stormed the project site to

resume work, reacting to this development, the villagers mobilised themselves

to protest against this public ignominy.” He said that the woman who was shot

was a breastfeeding mother.

The article includes photos of an injured

protester and protesters being chased by a police van and

running away.

Paul Obi, aide to Governor Ayde, made a statement

to Cross River Watch claiming that those who were injured were shot by natives

of Okambi community and accused them of attacking a police officer. He wrote: ‘Community

men shot an Operator, burnt a Dozer (sic), vandalized many, deep machete cut on

a Police officer attached to project.’

The 5th January 2021 protest was

the most recent in a series of protests against the airport project, and the

latest of several incidences of police being drafted in to shoot at and scare

away residents. Dozens of residents had been arrested with a number of them

facing trial.

Residents of the five communities impacted by

the airport project had repeatedly refuted the State Government claim that 500

million Naira (USD1,314,000) was paid in compensation, especially residents of Okambi

and Ikwomikwu communities which stand to lose between 80 and 90 per cent of their

ancestral lands.[16]

Basic Data

Name of conflict:Obudu International Passenger and Cargo Airport, Nigeria
State or province:Cross River State
Location of conflict:Obudu
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Ports and airport projects
Land acquisition conflicts
Specific commodities:Land

Project Details and Actors

Project details

On 4th May 2019 it was reported that a letter had been sent by Cross River State State Government to the clan heads of three Obudu villages – Atiekpe, Ikwomikwu and Okambi – where land is being acquired for a new airport The letter included the following statements:

“I have the directives of His Excellency, the Governor, to notify you and the entire community that the government of Cross River State under the administration of His Excellency, Senator Professor Benedict Ayade (Esq.) proposes to develop an international standard passenger and cargo airport in Obudu to be known as the Obudu International Passenger and Cargo Airport (OIA).

“The preferred site of about nine (9) square kilometers for the location of the proposed airport is the land lying northwards of Obudu, belonging to Atiekpe, Ikwomikwu and Okambi communities.

“The choice of this location was arrived at considering its topographical and physical features in relationship to the open horizon at the north-eastern and south-western axis, which is convenient for the runway orientation.

“The proposed airport conceived for common good, would impact positively and progressively on the socio-economic, tourism and agriculture sectors of the State and of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in relative terms.

“Kindly note that for the urgency of this project, and its speedy completion, acquisition and compensation process in line with the statutes Nigerian Land Use Act (2004) would commence immediately while also site preparation works such as clearing and development of access road would be kick-started by the project delivery team.”[1]

The ‘Expression Of Interest For The Conduct Of Feasibility Studies, Design And Construction Of Obudu Cargo International Airport’, published on 15th May 2019, stated:

“This project intends to further open up the State to the outside world by allowing for the horticultural cultivation and export of ornamental flowers, fruits and vegetables to Europe and beyond. Cultivate temperate crops and animal husbandry up the Obudu Ranch Resort and put it into full capacity utilization with local and direct international quest. Also to densify traffic to the proposed Amunga Beach and Busafong Resort which will be the sun city of Nigeria. To reverse international tourism by Nigerians and indeed Africans, a touristic and commercial airport with not less than 3km runway”.[3]

Project area:1,500
Type of populationRural
Start of the conflict:04/05/2019
Relevant government actors:Cross River State Government
Obudu local government
Okambi Development Association (ODA)
Nigeria Police Force
Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET)
Nigerian Army
Special Anti Robbery Squad (SARS)
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Cross River Coalition Against Land Grabbing

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of mobilization:Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Land occupation
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Official complaint letters and petitions
Street protest/marches
Arguments for the rights of mother nature
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Refusal of compensation


Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Air pollution, Global warming, Noise pollution, Soil erosion, Oil spills, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Health ImpactsVisible: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Deaths
Potential: Malnutrition, Other Health impacts
Other Health impactsIllnesses caused by pollutants emitted by aircraft
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Militarization and increased police presence, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures


Project StatusUnder construction
Conflict outcome / response:Compensation
Criminalization of activists
Deaths, Assassinations, Murders
Violent targeting of activists
Proposal and development of alternatives:Cross River Coalition Against Land Grabbing issued a press release calling on Governor Ben Ayade to complete unfinished projects instead of building a new airport: roads, renovation of the Obudu Ranch resort and renovation of nearby Bebi Airstrip to make it functional and efficient.[12]
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:Land clearance including destruction of crops and farmland to make way for construction Obudu International Passenger and Cargo Airport began without consulting affected communities. Normal procedures for project planning and land acquisition have not been adhered to. There are reports that people opposing loss of residential and farm land for the airport are being intimidated and arrested. On 23rd May 2019 it was reported that a palm plantation owner had died in hospital after participating in protests and confronting a bulldozer that was nearing his land, and another man had been critically injured and was in hospital after his farm was demolished. On 2nd March 2020 it was reported that one person had been killed and several injured in a clash over compensation. On 5th January 2021 it was reported that three Okambi residents, participants in a peaceful protest against the airport, had been shot by a combined team of police officers and civilian gunmen.

Sources & Materials

[1] Ayade To Commence Aquisition Of Land For Obudu Airport, Appeals For Cooperation From Affected Communities, CrossRiverWatch, 4 May 2019

[2] Unlawful Entry, Destruction Of Farm Crops And Encroachment Of Rural Agricultural Land Under The Ownership And Possession Of The People Of Okambi, Obudu, Letter to Senator B.B. Ayade, Governor, Cross River State, Vox Justicia Associates, 16 May 2019

[3] Obudu Cargo Airport: Crisis Brews As Communities, Government Face Off, CrossRiverWatch, 18 May 2019

[5] Who Needs A Third Airport In Cross River State?, CrossRiverWatch, 18 May 2019

[6] Obudu International Airport Claims First Casualty; APC, AAC, NBA React, CrossRiverWatch, 23 May 2019

[7] Obudu Cargo Airport: NIMET Writes Ayade, As Document Raises Question On New Ogoja Airport, CrossRiverWatch, 25 May 2019

[9] Obudu Cargo Airport: Soldiers Invade Ukambi Community, Arrest Two As Women Protest (Video), CrossRiverWatch, 28 May 2019

[10] Obudu Cargo Airport: More Soldiers Arrive Ukambi, CrossRiverWatch, 29 May 2019

[11] Nigerians want police's SARS force scrapped, Al Jazeera, 15 December 2017

[12] Proposed Obudu Airport: Ayade’s kinsmen blows hot, call him land grabber, Paradise News, 4 June 2019


[14] One dead, others injured in clash over Cross River N500m compensation, TheGuardian, 02/03/2020

[15] Youths Protest, Reject Obudu International Passenger And Cargo Airport, Claims Foul Play, Cross River Watch, 02/01/2021

[16] UPDATED: Police Shoot, Brutalize Four Over Controversial Obudu Airport, Cross River Watch, 05/01/2021

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

[4] Women Protest Seizure Of Land To Build Obudu International Passenger And Cargo Airport, SaharaTV, 18 May 2019

[8] Obudu Cargo Airport: Teenager Sends Governor Ayade Video Message, CrossRiverWatchTV, 26 May 2019

[17] Obudu Cargo Airport: Thousands To Become Displaced Without Compensation, CrossRiverWatchTV, 28/12/2020

Meta information

Contributor:Rose Bridger, Stay Grounded, email: [email protected]
Last update06/07/2019
Conflict ID:4267



Women protest airport construction

Women of Okambi protest the decision of the Cross River State Government to construct an airport in their community. Source: CrossRiverWatch

Project site sign

Sign – proposed Obudu Airport project site. Source: VOPLINKIMEDIA Source: VOPLINKIMEDIA

The first casualty of Obudu airport project

On 23rd May 2019 CrossRiverWatch reported that Raphael A. Ushie had died in hospital after confronting a bulldozer nearing his palm plantation in Ukambi village. Source:

Clearing land for an airport in Obudu

A bulldozer clears land for Obudu International Passenger and Cargo Airport. Farmland, crops and trees are being destroyed to make way for the project. Source: CrossRiverWatch

Women resist land acquisition

Women protested harassment and arrest of people resisting land acquisition for the proposed Obudu Airport and vowed to continue to oppose attempts to take over their farmland. Source: CrossRiverWatch

Obudu airport protest banner

Banner at 2nd January 2021 protest against Obudu Airport, Cross River Watch, 02/01/2021

Protester injured on 5th January 2021

A peaceful protester against Obudu airport project shows his injury, Cross River Watch, 05/01/2021

Okambi protesters chased away

Protesters from Okambi community being chased away by a police van, Cross River Watch, 05/01/2021