Please zoom in or out and select the base layer according to your preference to make the map ready for printing, then press the Print button above.

Soga coal power plant, Chiba, Japan


In 2011, the amount of electricity generated from coal in Japan (including electricity supply directly to industry) was 238.8 TWh, which is 14 times greater than the amount in 1973.  Coal fired electricity accounted for 25% of all electricity generated in 2011.  Furthermore, after the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plants accident that year, we witnessed increased use of coal as an alternative to nuclear power plants that have been suspended. (3). In 2017 it was reported that the Japanese government was moving ahead with its plans to build up to 45 new coal fired power stations. The power plants would utilise high energy, low emissions (HELE) technology that use high-quality black coal. Japan is the largest overseas market for Australian coal producers, taking more than a third of all exports. After the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011, Japan started importing more liquefied natural gas (LNG). But coal is cheaper than LPG. (5)

One of these new coal fired power plant would be built by Chiba Power (Chugoku Electric Power, JFE Steel), this would be a 1,070MW plant at JFE steel factory site. Its first EIA screening paper was opened in January, 2017. In February 2018 the EIA has been made public. As soon as this project was unfurled, citizens stood up to protest this plan and established a group for studying coal power plant in Soga (Anti-Coal Soga). People living in the area who have suffered by coal powder dust lifted into the sky from the JFE Steel site, nasty smell, and air pollution, are worrying their living condition gets worse if new additional coal-fired power plant is built in the future.

Friends of the Earth Japan raised voice with local communities in Soga, Chiba against the construction of new coal power plant as a part of the global fight against climate change, joining with over 30 grassroots groups across six continents. (1). 13-14 October 2017 saw a wave of mobilization across the world .

This is the local  background. The residents of Chiba city in Chiba Prefecture have suffered from serious pollution caused by the smoke from the factories of Kawasaki Steel Corporation (now JFE Steel) since its creation in 1951. In 1972, citizens from a wide range of backgrounds including parents, administrative officials, school teachers and doctors seeking measures to prevent pollution gathered to form the “Organization to Eliminate Pollution from Chiba City”. At the time, 75,000 residents of Chiba city which constitutes to twenty-percent of the population came to an agreement and requested for a “Pollution Prevention Ordinance” but it was dismissed. The residents then filed suit in the hopes of ensuring “blue skies for all children” and the Aozora Trials began in 1975.

In 1988, the Chiba District Court legally recognized the causal relationship between the air pollution by Kawasaki Steel and the health hazards of the residents. As a result, the court ordered the Kawasaki Steel Corporation to pay damages and ruled in favor of the plaintiff. This legal recognition of the causal relationship between the air pollution and the public health hazard encouraged future air pollution trials in other areas.

Residents in Chiba with such previous battles against air pollution are now confronted with the construction of a new coal power plant right in their city, threatening those blue skies once again.

The  Plan for a New Coal Power Plant. Currently, a construction plan of a new coal power plant facility with a capacity of 1,070,000 kW is underway in Chuo ward of Chiba prefecture (the tentative name is “Soga Coal Power Station”). This power plant will be operated by Chiba Power Company Ltd., a company whose investors include the JFE Steel (formerly Kawasaki Steel) and Chugoku Electric Power Co. As of now, the construction plans are being assessed for environmental impacts based on the Environmental Impact Assessment Laws. Even now (2018), local residents suffer from the air pollution that was thought to be caused by the JFE Steel East Japan Works and as such are showing strong concerns over the prospect of further increase in pollution emissions.

In March 2017, the Environment Minister had shown some doubts about the investment. According to Reuters (2), Minister Koichi Yamamoto, in an opinion statement over the companies’ plan for a 1.07 gigawatt (GW) coal-fired power plant, flagged a business risk and suggested the companies should consider all options including scrapping the plan. “It is important for the companies to recognize severe business risk surrounding coal-fired power stations and think about all possible options including reconsidering the plan if no clear path to cut emissions by 2030 and later is available,” Yamamoto said. The companies plan to build the power station in Chiba aiming to start operation in 2024. Government approval for a power plant project in Japan is based on an examination of its effects on the surrounding environment. The industry ministry handles the process and is authorized to give an approval, although the environment ministry can submit opinions during the assessment that could influence the final decision. The environment ministry had issued objections to five new coal-fired stations in 2015 but was pushed by the industry ministry in 2016 to accept voluntary steps by power companies to curb emissions. But as Japan aims to curb emissions by 26 percent by 2030 from 2013 level and 80 percent by 2050, the ministry needs stricter checks, an environment ministry official said. “We’re worried that there are so many plans to build new coal stations which could hinder us from achieving goals,” he said.  The new plants, if all built, will raise emissions from coal power plants to 300 million tonnes in 2030, against 267 million in 2014 and Japan’s target of 220 million to 230 million tonnes in 2030, the ministry estimates. The industry minister Hiroshige Seko, however, brushed off that claim saying the opinion is not an objection. “We’ll take it into an account and will make an appropriate action,” he said. (2)

In a related case, in March 2017 the Kiko Network announced (4)  the cancellation of a new coal projects in Ichibara, Chiba. "the first case of cancellation of a large scale new coal project". The Kiko Network, whioch is also active in the Soga case, stated: "not only new construction of coal power plants is not acceptable, but also existing coal plants have to be phased out.  As other nations move beyond coal, divestment campaigns against the coal industry is spreading and assets are becoming stranded. Having considered the situation, other developers who plan to construct new coal fired power plants should also decide to cancel their plans. Many construction plans are concentrated in Chiba prefecture, near Tokyo area. Kiko Network took the projects in Chiba seriously. Also the movement was getting large as concerned local people established citizen group. The cancellation of this large project (Ichibara) is a great accomplishment for both Kiko Network and the local people. The trend against coal-fired power projects in Japan is clearly changing. We are determined to continue to intensively track the remaining 45 other plans, collaborate with the local people and enlarge the scale of the movement." (4).

Basic Data

Name of conflict:Soga coal power plant, Chiba, Japan
State or province:Chiba
Location of conflict:Chiba
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Thermal power plants
Specific commodities:Electricity

Project Details and Actors

Project details

Chugoku Electric Power, JFE Steel Corporation, and Tokyo Gas have proposed a 1,070 MW ultra-supercritical power station at the site of JFE's old steel factory in the Chuo ward of Chiba. Estimated CO2 emissions, 6.420 million tons/ year.

Chugoku Electric Power and JFE Steel plan to sell the power to TEPCO, and Tokyo Gas plans to sell the rest to the Kanto area. As of 2017 the EIA process is underway. Protest against the proposed Soga plant on October 14, 201. Local residents and Friends of the Earth Japan protested the construction of the new Soga plant. According to Friends of the Earth: "Public facilities such as schools and athletic grounds are located within a 5km radius of the planned construction site. If a coal power plant is constructed and begins operations, additional concerns will be raised on the effects of air pollution on local residents. The planned construction site is in an area which experiences environmental improvement after the court rulings during the Aozora Trials." (Coalswarm). Finally the project was cancelled in 2018.

Type of populationUrban
Start of the conflict:2016
Company names or state enterprises:Kawasaki Steel from Japan
Chugoku Electric Power from Japan
JFE Steel from Japan
Tokyo Electrical Power Company (TEPCO) from Japan
Tokyo Gas from Japan
Relevant government actors:Environment Ministry
Industry Ministry
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Friends of the Earth (Japan)
Kiko Network, [email protected]

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityLOW (some local organising)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Local ejos
Forms of mobilization:Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions


Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Global warming, Other Environmental impacts
Other Environmental impactsNasty smell.
Health ImpactsPotential: Other environmental related diseases, Other Health impacts
Other Health impactsCoal dust
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Loss of landscape/sense of place


Project StatusStopped
Conflict outcome / response:Project cancelled
EIA under discussion in 2018. Local citizens' movement, stronly supported by Kiko Network anti-climate change.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Yes
Briefly explain:It seemed likely that the Soha coal fired power plant will not be built. This was decided in 2018. Chugoku Electric Power, JFE Steel Corporation, and Tokyo Gas had proposed a 1,070 MW ultra-supercritical power station in the Chuo ward of Chiba. Chugoku Electric Power and JFE Steel planned to sell the power to TEPCO, and Tokyo Gas plans to sell the rest to the Kanto area. As of 2017 the EIA process was underway. The power station was planned for operation in 2024.
In December 2018, Chugoku Electric Power and JFE Steel announced the cancellation of the coal plant, saying they will instead consider project feasibility for joint construction of a natural gas thermal power plant. The cancellation followed sustained public protest of the plant.

Sources & Materials

(3) In many places, local movements against new coal-fired power plant project are getting active. In order to introduce local citizen’s movements at Sendai, Tokyo-Bay area, Kobe, and Takasago, set a new page call “Local Movements“.

(6) Japanese government planning to build 45 new coal fired power stations to diversify supply. By Babs McHugh. 1 Febr. 2017.

(4) Kiko Network. Developers Announced the Cancellation of New Coal Power Project in Ichihara, Chiba –The first case of cancellation on a large scale new project (March 23, 2017)

(2) Reuters, Japan's environment minister sees business risk in building new coal-fired plant. 10 March 2017.

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network


(1) FoE Japan, 16 Oct. 2017, Soga needs no coal power plants – The new construction plan on a land with a history of pollution

Meta information

Last update05/07/2021



Source: FoE Japan

No more Construction of Coal-Fired Power Plant! (the upper part). The Society for Reconsidering the Plan for Coal-Fired Plant Construction (the lower part)