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Svydovets ski resort, Ukraine


Description:

An enormous ski resort complex is proposed in the Svydovets massif, which forms part of the Carpathian mountains in Transcarpathia in western Ukraine. Plans for the megaproject - comprising 230 kilometres of ski runs, 33 ski lifts plus hotels, restaurants, shopping malls, an airport and other facilities - first came to light in 2016 and if it goes ahead it will be the largest ski resort in the country, an urban centre in its own right with capacity to accommodate 28,000 visitors simultaneously. The development would cause serious ecological damage to Svydovets, one of the most beautiful mountain ranges in Ukraine. Wild spruce and beech forests are rich in flora and fauna and there are three natural lakes. Government officials have lobbied for approval of the project. The governor of Transcarpathia, Guenady Moskal supports establishment of the ski resort, financed by unknown investors. The project area spans Tyachiv and Rakhiv districts. Three villages are directly affected: Yassinya, Tchoma Tissa and Lopukhovo.

At the beginning of 2017 public hearings were organized by both districts aiming to obtain  agreements for the project. An activist from Lopukhovo reported that citizens were not informed about the vote for or against the Svydovets project that was due to take place at the public hearing, a lack of information that led to a mere 20 people making the decision on behalf of the whole village. A number of Lopukhovo residents lodged a legal complaint in the administrative court, calling on lawyers, ecological organizations and members of the national parliament to assist them.[1]

The resort project threatens to worsen an already serious problems of excessive tree felling. Many residents opposing the project work in the local forest and timber industries. For over 20 years they have been protesting against poor forest management and corruption; in particular they have denounced woodcuts undertaken ostensibly for sanitation reasons. For example, 50,000 cubic meters of timber was cut in the Lopukhovo state forest in 2005, and by 2016 the situation had escalated and become catastrophic with the volume of timber cut increasing to 240,000 cubic metres. High levels of wood cutting reduce biodiversity due to habitat loss, lead to soil erosion, and can cause landslides.[1]

Svydovets lies at the source of the river Tisza, one of the most important in the region, and construction of the mega ski resort would cause serious disruption to hydro-geological systems. The massif has one of the highest levels of rainfall in the region, 140 mm per year.[1] There are also concerns over the strain the project would cause to water resources in the Tisza river basin area. The projected number of visitors to the ski resort would require at least 12 million litres per day and water pollution would be inevitable.[2]

Opponents of the project question the rationale of such an enormous urban development in the heart of the Svydovets, high up in the mountains, in the absence of infrastructure for either resident communities or tourists at lower altitudes in the existing villages. There are no proper water and sewage systems and no facilities such as hotels, supermarkets, banks or medical centres. The road network is minimal, yet state forest personnel in Lophukovo have begun construction of a new road extending across the massif to reach the centre of the planned ski resort and linking to the districts of Tyachiv and Rakhiv.[1]

Formed in 2017, Free Svydovets brings together local people and NGOs to protect the unique ecosystem of the Svydovets massif and is making the follow demands:

* Calling on the two districts to annul building permits

* Calling for the council of ministers to refuse  authorization for a change in land use

* Protecting the massif by extending the neighbouring Natural Reserve

* Imposition of a reduction in the permitted maximum yield of timber per hectare

* Calling for civic organizations to exercise stronger controls on forest exploitation

Free Svydovets lodged a legal complaint against the project. The first court session took place on 14th November 2017, attended by 20 activists and filmed by a national television channel. The three main leaders of the campaign in Lopukhovo received several telephone callsthreatening them with dire consequences of they do not give up their campaign.[1]

In March 2018 Free Svydovets initiated a petition to President Poroshenko, the government and environment minister to protect the massif from the resort, emphasizing the endangered species of plants, fragments of old-growth forest and unique glacial lakes at risk.[2] An appeal court session in April 2018 required the Tyachiv and Rakhiv state administrations to provide the court with detailed plan of the territory of the mega-resort and on 4th May the two districts presented large maps of the site with descriptive information. The plans revealed that an area of more than 430 hectares of forest would be clear cut. Opponents began scrutinizing the documents to ascertain whether the plans adhere to Ukrainian laws. Hopes for legal statutes to ensure forest preservation were raised when the Ministry of Environment approved an application for creation of a protected ‘Central Svydovets’ area of 335 hectares.[3]

By August 2018 over 20 European organizations had signed up to the Free Svydovets campaign opposing the ski resort. The European Wilderness Society visited the massif and a group of Ukrainian scientists prepared a scientific ecological assessment of the impacts of development on the scale of the planned resort. Changes to the hydrological systems of the area would be far-reaching. The main tributaries of River Tisza originate in the massif and lakes, streams and marshland act as a water reserve, absorbing water from heavy rainfall and thawing snow. Large scale intervention of the type planned for the resort would cause soil erosion, flooding, landslides, lowering of the water table and the risk of drought. Climate change, with higher temperatures and shifting precipitation patterns already evident, poses operational challenges to the planned ski resort. The altitude of 1,700 meters is low compared to mostski resorts in Austria, which are located at altitudes of between 1,500 and 3,000 meters. Yet many of Austria’s ski resorts are struggling due to decreasing and irregular snowfall. Ski facilities rely on ever increasing volumes of artificial snow to operate. This places a strain on local water resources with over-extraction leaving many reservoirs empty as early in the season as January and host communities having to contend with increasingly frequent water shortages.[4]

A paper presented to the 5th Forum Carpaticum: Adapting to Environmental and Social Risk in the Carpathian Mountain Region, held in Eger, Hungary, from 15th-18th October 2018 stated that the at ski resort would over 1,430 hectares and that up to 850 hectares are earmarked for deforestation. A total of 93 species listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine, 42 plant and 51 animal, would be threatened by implementation of the project. Building the resort would violate national and international laws pertaining to protection of species and habitats, having a direct impact on protected territories. The  project would also have direct negative impacts on people’s health and livelihoods: a decreased water table leaving inadequate resources for domestic and commercial use, decreased food production due to loss of mushrooms and berries and loss of income from plants used to produce natural medicines.[5]

Free Svydovets has worked to garner support from the wider Carpathian mountains region, which extends across central and eastern Europe. At a meeting of the Framework Convention on the protection and Sustainable Development of the Carpathians in Hungary representatives of campaign raised the issue of Ukraine failing to meet its obligations with regard to sustainable tourism.[1] In November 2018 Swiss non-governmental organization Bruno Manser Fonds, a key supporter of the Free Svydovets campaign, presented the Ukrainian Embassy in Bern with an official appeal to protect the Carpathian forests from the threats of illegal tree cutting and the gigantic ski resort.

A petition calling on President Poroshenko to preserve the ecologically unique forest landscape was signed by 8,258 Swiss citizens. At this juncture authorities had still not informed the public about details of the project plans or the origin of the investors. Presenting the petition on behalf of a delegation with representatives from Bruno Manser Fonds and the European Civic Forum, Oreste Del Sol, coordinator of Free Svydovets, informed Ukrainian Ambassador Artem Rybchenko that people from affected villages who speak out against the project were being pressured on a massive scale.[6]

Basic Data

Name of conflict:Svydovets ski resort, Ukraine
Country:Ukraine
State or province:Zakarpattia Oblast
Location of conflict:Tyachiv and Rakhiv districts
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Tourism Recreation
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Deforestation
Tourism facilities (ski resorts, hotels, marinas)
Water access rights and entitlements
Logging and non timber extraction
Urban development conflicts
Ports and airport projects
Specific commodities:Land
Water
Tourism services

Project Details and Actors

Project details

The proposed total area of the Svodovets ski resort complex covers 1,430 hectares, with about 800 hectares earmarked for housing, commercial, economic and recreational infrastructure, including the area for engineering communications. Reports of project components include:

• 230 kilometers of ski runs[5]

• 33 ski lifts[2]

• 89.9 kilometers of highways

• 5 multi-storey car parks with spaces for 6,000 cars

• 120 restaurants

• 60 hotels

• 390 cottages

• 10 shopping centres

• 17 rental facilities

• 3 bank branches

• 3 fitness centres[5]

• airport[2] [4]

Construction of a new road extending across the massif to reach the centre of the planned ski resort, linking to the districts of Tyatchiv and Rakhiv, has commenced.[1] Construction of several reservoirs with the total volume of 1,260,000 cubic meters is planned, in order to provide water for tourists and artificial snow production. The ski resort would produce up to 5,800 cubic meters of sewage waters daily.[5]

Project area:1,430
Type of populationRural
Start of the conflict:2017
Relevant government actors:Tyachiv District State Administration
Rakhiv District State Administration
Regional State Administration of Transcarpathia
Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Free Svydovets - https://freesvydovets.org/en/
European Wilderness Society - https://wilderness-society.org/
Bruno Manser Fonds - http://www.bmf.ch/waldkarpaten/en/
European Civic Forum - http://civic-forum.eu/
WWF Global - http://wwf.panda.org/?325650/Petition-to-save-Svydovets-massif-in-Ukraine-initiated

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityLOW (some local organising)
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:Industrial workers
International ejos
Local ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Recreational users
Forms of mobilization:Artistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Arguments for the rights of mother nature
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment

Impacts

Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Desertification/Drought, Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Groundwater pollution or depletion, Soil erosion, Food insecurity (crop damage)
Health ImpactsPotential: Other Health impacts
Other Health impactsLoss of food production - mushrooms and berries
Illnesses causes by pollutants emitted by aircraft
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Loss of livelihood, Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors
Other socio-economic impactsLoss of income from forestry and timber industries and medicinal plants

Outcome

Project StatusProposed (exploration phase)
Conflict outcome / response:Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
Repression
Development of alternatives:Free Svydovets supports the development of sustainable tourism and creation of small-scale resorts in certain areas where environmental impact assessments stipulate that the environment will not be harmed.[2]
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Briefly explain:A court decision requiring the Tyachiv and Rakhiv state administrations to provide detailed plans of the mega ski resort was an achievement for environmental justice. The outcome of the more substantive matter of construction of the resort is uncertain. If the project goes ahead it would violate numerous provisions of national and international laws pertaining to protected species and areas.

Sources & Materials

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

[5] Tymur Bedernichek, Tetyana Partyka, Roman Cherepanyn, Tetyana Kuchma,Vlasta Loya, Myroslaw Kabal, Ruslan Gleb, Environmental impact of the planned ski resort SVYDOVETS: far-reaching Consequences on the ecosystems and Biodiversity, 5th Forum Carpaticum: Adapting to Environmental and Social Risk in the Carpathian Mountain Region, Eger, Hungary, 15-18 October 2018, Book of abstracts
http://fc2018.hu/book-of-abstracts/

[1] 14.000 hectares of forest in the Carpathian mountains in Ukraine threatened by a huge tourism project: Defend << Svydovets >> !, FREE Svydovets
https://freesvydovets.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/texte-4-pages-Svydovets-Appeal-ENG.pdf

[2] Petition to the President of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine “Protect the Ice Age Park in the Carpathians from Construction Development”, FREE Svydovets
https://freesvydovets.org/en/#reasons

[3] How is Svydovets doing?, European Wilderness Network, 13 April 2018
https://wilderness-society.org/how-is-svydovets-doing/

[4] Svydovets massif needs our support, European Wilderness Network, 23 August 2018
https://wilderness-society.org/svydovets-massif-needs-our-support/

[6] 8000 signatures for the protection of the Carpathian forests, Bruno Manser Fonds, November 2018
https://bmf.ch/waldkarpaten/en/news/8000-signatures-for-the-protection-of-the-carpathian-forests

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Video by Free Svydovets – Svydovets mountain range is a perfect environment for long term tourism – rural and environmental, but unique ecosystems at risk from tourism complex
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hDMcmcLFkOA

Video by Bruno Manser Fonds – Ski resort complex for 28,000 visitors a day threatens fragile Svydovets ecosystem
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y9U3-Q_-DTg&t

Video by Bruno Manser Fonds – Biodiversity in the Carpathian Forest, Svydovets is a biodiversity hotspot with 94 endangered animal and plant species
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i-xg4H2dgyk

Other documents

Svydovets map Detailed plan of the Svydovets ski-resort complex. Source: Ukrinform
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Svydovets_1.jpg

Svydovets mountains The Svydovets massif, one of the most beautiful mountain ranges in Ukraine, is threatened by the megatourism project. Source: FREE Svydovets
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Svydovets_3.jpg

FREE Svydovets campaigners An Appeal court session required state administrations to provide detailed plan of the territory of the meg-resort plan. Source: Irvna Shcoka, European Wilderness Network
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Svydovets_2.jpg

Meta information

Contributor:Rose Bridger, Stay Grounded, email: [email protected]
Last update28/11/2018

Images

 

FREE Svydovets campaigners

An Appeal court session required state administrations to provide detailed plan of the territory of the meg-resort plan. Source: Irvna Shcoka, European Wilderness Network

Svydovets mountains

The Svydovets massif, one of the most beautiful mountain ranges in Ukraine, is threatened by the megatourism project. Source: FREE Svydovets