The expansion of industrial capture fisheries leads to new bilateral or multilateral fishing agreements between African countries and foreign investors from countries like China and European Union [1, 2, 3, 4, 6]. In September 2018, at the the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, Madagascar has been exposed to a new 10-years of investment agreement with China. The agreement was made between the Malagasy Agency for Economic Development and Promotion of Enterprises, and the Chinese business consortium, Taihe Century Investments Developments Corporation, and presented as part of Madagascar’s blue economy initiative .
Both the investment agreement and how it has been made is criticized for their lack of transparency and the local artisanal fisher people have serious concerns about their possible impacts on them and on their marine resources. They claim that they feel threatened by the arrival of massive foreign industrial fisheries, which would gain a lot but not contribute to the local economy. Even though the government (AMDP) has declared that this agreement would create employment for 10,000 people, local fisher people argue that at the same time it will destroy the existing employment [1, 4, 6].
Thus, they do not believe in the return or a fair distribution of the 2,7 billion dollars of investment that has been promised by the Taihe Century Investments Developments Corporation [1, 4, 6, 8]. Neither it is clearly mentioned how this amount of money will be used. Some explanations include: building fisheries infrastructure, support for fisheries management and the fight against IUU fishing, as well as a bamboo forestation project . (IUU fishing is illegal, unreported fishing). As a result, the Chinese consortium will have the right of deploying up to 330 vessels in Madagascar, even though right now there are only 40-60 boats on the coast of Isla grande which already struggle to capture in the current context of declining marine resources [1, 4, 6].
"A representative of the artisanal fishing sector emphasized that 'the state is robbing coastal fishermen of their livelihood' . They are also concerned that the short-term jobs promised only form 3% of the number of 100,000 artisanal fishers who live depending on these fisheries resources and already having difficulties in making ends meet. They argue that such an investment and fishing model will create unemployment, insecurity and increased risk of conflict between communities. Depending on the type of boats that come, they fear degradation of habitats and overfishing and claim that they also lack resources for monitoring with only one or two operational coast guard boats. They are concerned with the possibility of this agreement benefiting only " a handful of people, with corruption jeopardizing the future of entire fishing communities". 
News of the investment agreement caused concerns and protests among fishing folks in Madagascar. Small-scale fisher people in Madagascar point out that most of the commercial fish stocks have been already heavily exploited (either fully exploited or overexploited) not only by local small-scale fishers but also by foreign semi-industrial and industrial trawlers [4, 5]. This already had led to several conflicts between local artisanal fisheries and foreign owned trawlers (and commercial prawn farms), which might get even more intense as a result of such agreements.
Instead, small-scale fisher people demand their rights to use marine resources and their protection with marine reserves, which would also separate the fishing zones for industrial fishing vessels and small-scale fishing. fisher organizations, the MIHARY network composed of 23 NGOs and civil society organizations like Transparency International initiative Madagascar organizing meetings and petitions and struggle to protect small-scale fishers' rights and improve their working conditions in Madagascar [6, 10].