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West African Gas Pipeline, from Nigeria to Ghana


Description:

The West African Gas Pipeline (WAGP), operated by Chevron and owned by the West African Gas Pipeline Company Limited (WAGPco) was commissioned in 2006. Chevron's partners on the project are the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Royal Dutch Shell, Volta River Authority, Société Togolaise du Gaz and the Société Beninoise de Gaz.

The onshore and offshore has a total length of 678 kilometers that transports gas from Nigeria to Benin, Togo and Ghana. It is linking into the existing Escravos-Lagos pipeline at the Nigeria Gas Company's Itoki Natural Gas Export Terminal in Nigeria from where it proceeds to a Lagos beachhead. Then it moves offshore to Takoradi, Ghana, including gas delivery laterals from the main line extending to Cotonou (Benin), Lome (Togo) and Tema (Ghana). Of the approximately 200 hectares land area used by the WAGP, 70% of which lies in Nigeria and over 3,000 households within the Right of Way.

The project is said to support the World Bank West Africa Regional Integration Assistance Stratey (RIAS), whose objective it is to create an open economic integrated economic space in West Africa. The WAPG was also meant to compliment the West Africa power market development project, We st African Power Pool (WAPP).

Since ECOWAS first proposed the project in 1982, critical voices have emerged. In 2006, twelve Nigerian communities filed a complaint about the WAGP with the inspection panel of the World Bank, “charging the Bank with derelict conduct in carrying out necessary 'due diligence' about the project’s impacts”. Eventually, in 2008, after conducting the necessary investigations, the World Bank, concluded that the project “did not properly identify and arrange for the livelihood restoration of vulnerable people who involuntarily lost assets”, although the plaintiffs stated the report did not go far enough. The pipeline was nevertheless completed by December 2006.

Besides, there are complaints by official authorities and private sector actors that the gas promised by the construction of the WAGP is not reaching the partner countries other than Nigeria.

FInally, the WAGP would be at risk because of "uncontrolled shipping, sand winning, indiscriminate anchorage, bottom trawling, unauthorised shipping methods, improper disposal of abandoned ships/shipwrecks and offshore construction".

Basic Data

Name of conflict:West African Gas Pipeline, from Nigeria to Ghana
Country:Nigeria
State or province:Benin, Ghana, Nigeria, Togo
Accuracy of locationLOW (Country level)

Source of Conflict

Type of conflict. 1st level:Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Oil and gas refining
Specific commodities:Natural Gas

Project Details and Actors

Project details

The West African Gas Pipeline (WAGP) has a total length of 678 Kilometers (421 miles), a maximum discharge of 5 billion cubic meters per year and a diameter of 508mm (20 in).

WAGP transports purified natural gas to serve as fuel for power plants and industrial applications. 85% of the gas is destined for power generation and remains for industrial applications.

Project area:Total land area used: approximately 200 hectares
Level of Investment:1,000,000,000 USD
Type of populationSemi-urban
Affected Population:50,000 people might be displaced
Start of the conflict:01/01/1982
Company names or state enterprises:Chevron from United States of America
West African Gas Pipeline Company Limited from Ghana
International and Finance InstitutionsThe World Bank (WB) from United States of America
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Friends of the Earth Ghana
Friends of the Earth Nigeria/Environmental Rights Action

Conflict & Mobilization

IntensityUnknown
Reaction stagePREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups mobilizing:International ejos
Local ejos
Fisher people
Forms of mobilization:Involvement of national and international NGOs
Media based activism/alternative media
Public campaigns

Impacts

Environmental ImpactsPotential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Oil spills, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Air pollution, Fires
Health ImpactsPotential: Accidents
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood

Outcome

Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Project in operation
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:The West African Gas Pipeline is in operation disregarding the environmental and social impacts.

Sources & Materials

Related laws and legislations - Juridical texts related to the conflict

Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed IDA Partial Risk Guarantee in the Amount of US$ 50 Million for Ghana and a Proposed MIGA Guarantee in the Amount of US$75 Million for Sponsors Equity to the West African Gas Pipeline Company Limited for The West African Gas Pipeline Project, Document of the World Bank and MIGA, November 2, 2004,
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2004/11/09/000090341_20041109105344/Rendered/PDF/303350AFR.pdf

All other Enabling Legislations and WAGP Regulations and its amendments can be found on the WAGPa homepage:
http://wagpa.org/documentation.html

Treaty on the West African Gas Pipeline Project between The Republic of Benin and The Republic of Ghana and The Federal Republic of Nigeria and The Republic of Togo, Dakar, 31 January 2003,
http://www.wagpa.org/Treaty_on_WAGP_Project.pdf

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Friends of the Earth International et.al. (2006), The Myths of the West African Gas Pipeline, January 2006,
http://www.eldis.org/vfile/upload/1/document/0708/DOC21986.pdf

KARIKPO, Mike, (2008), Negotiating Resource Sovereignty, Fueling Conflicts: The Case of West African Gas Pipeline Project,
http://eraction.org/publications/presentations/negotiating_resource_sovereignty.pdf

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development – International Development Associacion (2014), 5th Progress Report to the Board of Executive Directors on the Implementation of Management's Action Plan, In Response to the Inspection Panel Investigation Report No. 42644-GH on the WEST AFRICAN GAS PIPELINE PROJECT (WAGP) (IDA Guarantee No. B-0060-GH), May 2014,
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2014/07/02/000442464_20140702130521/Rendered/PDF/891640INVR0P08080Box385271B00OUO090.pdf

CHUKWUDI ONUOHA, Freedom (2008), Is This Yet Another False Start? The West African Gas Pipeline Project and the Host Communities in the Niger Delta Region, Human Security Journal, Vol. 7, Summer 2008,
http://www.securitehumaine.univ-cezanne.fr/fileadmin/IEHI/Documents/REVUE_7/hsj7_onuoha.pdf

N-YAABA, Lawrence K.A., (2009), Socioeconomic Emancipation and Integration of West Africa: The Role of the West African Gas Pipeline, Practicum Paper, Master of Public Administration; Kennesaw State University, May 2009,
http://digitalcommons.kennesaw.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1028&context=etd

BASSEY, Nnimmo (2000), Communique of “The Information and Consultative Meeting on the West African Gas Pipeline” held at Warri, Delta State, Nigeria between March 14-15, 2000, Nnimmo Bassey, Chair, Oilwatch Africa, Director, Environmental Rights Action / Friends of the Earth Nigeria,
http://www.dawodu.net/oilgas.htm

Friends of the Earth International / Gender Action (2011), Broken Promises: Gender Impacts of the World Bank-Financed West-African and Chad-Cameroon Pipelines,
http://www.genderaction.org/publications/11/chad-cam-wagp-pipelines.pdf

GOODLAND, Robert (ed.) (2005), Oil and Gas Pipelines. Social and Environmental Impact Assessment: State of the Art. Complied and edited by Robert Goodland for IAIA 2005 Conference, May 2005,
http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/book_on_pipeline_best_practice.pdf.

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

West African Gas Pipeline Company (WAPCo):
http://www.wagpco.com

Friends of the Earth International, Global Research, September 09, 2005:
http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-new-west-african-gas-pipeline/912

West African Gas Pipeline Authority (WAGPa):
http://wagpa.org/wagpa.html

The World Bank, Projects Database: 3A- West African Gas Pipeline (IDA S/UP),
http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?pagePK=104231&piPK=73230&theSitePK=40941&menuPK=228424&Projectid=P082502

Friday Olokor, West Africa: World Bank Acknowledges West African Gas Pipeline Flaws,
http://allafrica.com/stories/200808060516.html

Emad Mekay, “New Pipeline a “Recipe for Disaster”, Locals Say”,
http://www.ipsnews.net/2006/04/finance-new-pipeline-a-recipe-for-disaster-locals-say/

World Bank Spots Loopholes In West African Gas Project ,
http://www.thenigeriabusiness.com/energy181.html

Human Rights Watch letter addressed to Dr. Jim Yong Kim, President of the World Bank, Re: Regional Eastern Africa Power Pool Program (APL1), July 5, 2012,
http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/related_material/Human%20Rights%20Watch%20Letter%20to%20President%20Kim_0.pdf

West African Gas Pipeline stops short of expectations
http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/5b049efc-bb14-11e3-948c-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3jYiZByRI

‘Don’t blame WAGP/WAPCo for ‘dumsor’
http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Don-t-blame-WAGP-WAPCo-for-dumsor-372097

Other documents

Map of the pipeline location
https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/West_African_Gas_Pipeline.jpg

Meta information

Last update15/03/2018

Images

 

Map of the pipeline location