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West Harlem and the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, USA


Description

In 1988, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MAT) attempted to build a new bus depot in the already heavily burdened neighborhood of West Harlem in Northern Manhattan, New York City. Northern Manhattan is a predominantly African American and Latino part of the city that disproportionately hosts several pollution facilities that harm the health of their residents. Some of the environmental burdens located in Northern Manhattan at that time included: a waste water treatment plant, a marine transfer station, a system of highways surrounding the neighborhood that represent some of the most important routes for transporting goods in and out of Manhattan, and six out of the eight MAT bus depots located in Manhattan. The Northern Manhattan community's asthma mortality and morbidity rates were five to six times higher than the national average. The connections between the environmental burdens and health impacts made spark the controversy.

In 1988, as a result the disproportionate health impacts from environmental threats located in their neighborhood, local communities founded WE ACT for Environmental Justice, the first environmental justice organization in New York City. Since its foundation, the goal of this organization was to fight against the use of this part of Manhattan as the dumping ground of New York City.

In November 2000, WE ACT and several community residents filed a complaint with the U.S. Department of Transportation alleging that diesel bus depots were disproportionately located in Manhattan's minority communities. This complaint also aimed to stop the proposal of building low income and seniors' housing over the bus depot. They co-filed the complaint with civil rights attorneys who asserted that the high number of depots in northern Manhattan violated Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, an act barring federal funding for any program that discriminates based on race. To support the complaint, WE ACT did a land use analysis that showed a high proportion of people of color living near the depots. In addition, WE ACT developed a media campaign and youth programs on diesel buses and air quality.

In 2004, in response to WE ACT's Title VI complaint of 2001, the Federal Transportation Authority found that MTA failed to comply with the required federal environmental impact analysis in constructing, rehabilitating and reconstructing of bus depots and other facilities.

After further local campaigns followed by pressure from state and local authorities, MTA started replacing hundreds of diesel fuel buses with alternative and cleaner vehicles, including ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and compressed natural gas (CNG) buses.

Basic Data

NameWest Harlem and the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, USA
CountryUnited States of America
ProvinceNew York
SiteNew York City
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level

Source of Conflict

Type of Conflict (1st level)Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Urban development conflicts
Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Pollution related to transport (spills, dust, emissions)

Project Details and Actors

Project DetailsSix out of seven MTA Manhattan bus depots are located north of 100th Street.

Particulate Matter (PM) represents the most dangerous air pollutant resulting from diesel bus combustion. Other pollutants that have a negative health impact include benzene, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.
Type of PopulationUrban
Potential Affected Population100,000-200,000
Start Date1988
Company Names or State EnterprisesMetropolitan Transportation Authority from United States of America
Relevant government actorsDepartment of Transportation (local, state, and federal)
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersWE ACT for Environmental Justice

The Conflict and the Mobilization

Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingLocal ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Development of a network/collective action
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches

Impacts

Environmental ImpactsVisible: Noise pollution, Air pollution
Potential: Global warming
Health ImpactsVisible: Other Health impacts
Potential: Deaths, Other environmental related diseases
OtherAshtma, Cancer, Cardiovascular diseases and other respiratory problems
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Loss of landscape/sense of place, Other socio-economic impacts
OtherHigh asthma rates in children have negative consequences in their school performance (higher number of school absence, poor academic performance, etc.)

Outcome

Project StatusStopped
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCourt decision (victory for environmental justice)
Technical solutions to improve resource supply/quality/distribution
The lawsuit was responsible for halting the construction of housing atop the depot.
Do you consider this as a success?Yes
Why? Explain briefly.The controversy sparked one of the most successful large scale environmental justice social marketing campaigns and the formation of a prominent Environmental Justice Organization. Today, New York's MTA has the largest fleet of hybrid-electric buses, and claims to have one of the cleanest transit fleets, in the United States.

However, since a disproportionate number of bus depots remains in the area, WE ACT and other environmental justice organizations continue their fight to press MTA to ensure a more sustainable depot operation.

Sources and Materials

Legislations

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
http://www.justice.gov/crt/about/cor/coord/vimanual.pdf

References

Shepard, Peggy. "Breathe at Your Own Risk: Transit Justice in West Harlem." race, poverty & the environment (2005): 51-53.

Shepard, Peggy M. "Issues of community empowerment." Fordham Urb. LJ 21 (1993): 739.

The Greenest Cleanest Depot Possible: Rebuilding Mother Clara Hale Depot
https://docs.google.com/fileview?id=0Bw10GZnFQvJGZmEyYWUzMGYtMjU2My00MTlhLWJmMmItMzZmMmRlOWNkNmZk&hl=en

Links

WE ACT
http://www.weact.org/Home/WEACTTimeline/tabid/310/Default.aspx

Article on the New York Times "Environmental Group Files Complaint Against M.T.A"
http://www.weact.org/Portals/7/NYTEnvironGroupFilesComplaintAgainstMTA.pdf

WE ACT's Title VI Complaint Against the MTA
http://www.weact.org/Programs/EJAdvocacyGovtAccountability/MTAAccountabilityCampaign/MTATitleVIComplaint/tabid/307/Default.aspx

Media Links

WE ACT's Dirty Diesel Campaign
http://www.weact.org/Portals/7/NO%20MORE%20BUSES%20RALLY.jpg

WE ACT's campaign is featured at local news
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_KdMVLkdrVs

MTA representative Tammy Petzios and Millicent Redick, co-chair of the Mother Clara Hale Task Force, lead a discussion on air quality issues
http://www.weact.org/Portals/7/Mother%20Clara%20Hale%20BusDepot_3128.jpg

WE ACT's Campaign "If you live Uptown, breath at your own risk"
http://www.weact.org/Portals/7/If%20You%20Live%20Uptown%20Poster.jpg

Locations of Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) bus depots across New York City's Communities of Color by US Census Tract in 1990. Source: WE ACT
http://www.weact.org/Portals/7/Map%204.pdf

Other CommentsThis is one of the top 40 influential environmental justice cases in the United States identified from a national survey of environmental activists, scholars and other leaders by graduate students at the University of Michigan

Meta Information

ContributorAlejandro Colsa PĂ©rez, acolsa@umich.edu, University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment
Last update08/07/2015