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Zydus R&D unit in Gujarat, India


Zydus Cadila is one of the top five Indian pharmaceutical companies.

The company mainly focuses on the pharmaceutical business and provides total healthcare solution globally. The company was founded by Late Mr. Ramanbhai B. Patel in 1952. In the early 1990’s, Zydus Cadila has become the second largest pharma company in India [1].

Recently, Zydus Research Centre (ZRC) located at Changodar near Ahmedabad come into a controversy for discharging untreated toxic water from its plant to the nearby well. In February 2014 depend upon some reliable source, the vigilance wing of Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) has found that the company is discharging untreated water from its plant to a adjoining bore well. The Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) has issued closure notices early March. The well was originally meant for accumulating rain water and is part of rainwater harvesting project.

GPCB has issued closure notices to the Research and Development (R&D) centre Zydus on March 1, 2014 [2].

Basic Data

NameZydus R&D unit in Gujarat, India
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level

Source of Conflict

Type of Conflict (1st level)Waste Management
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Landfills, toxic waste treatment, uncontrolled dump sites
Specific CommoditiesChemical products

Project Details and Actors

Project DetailsZydus Research Centre (ZRC) is the dedicated research and development (R&D) arm of Zydus Cadila. This unit was established in the year 2000. This modern research facility is spread over an area of about 3, 60,000 sq. ft. The unit is located at Changodar near Ahmedabad city. About 300 scientists and technologists are actively engaged in R&D in various disciplines of Biology and Bio pharmaceutical research. The Centre has received GLP Accreditation from National GLP (Good Laboratory Practices) compliance monitoring authority of Government of India [3].
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Potential Affected PopulationNot known
Start Date01/03/2014
Company Names or State EnterprisesZydus Cadila from India - Owner of the plant
Relevant government actorsGujarat Pollution Control Board

The Conflict and the Mobilization

Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LATENT (no visible organising at the moment)
When did the mobilization beginLATENT (no visible resistance)
Groups MobilizingLocal government/political parties
Local scientists/professionals
Gujarat Pollution Control Board authorities
Forms of MobilizationLawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Occupation of buildings/public spaces


Environmental ImpactsVisible: Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Potential: Soil contamination, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Other Environmental impacts
Health ImpactsPotential: Infectious diseases, Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economic ImpactsPotential: Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place


Project StatusStopped
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Strengthening of participation
Technical solutions to improve resource supply/quality/distribution
Application of existing regulations
Project temporarily suspended
Development of AlternativesGenerally, chemical oxygen demand (COD) value of discharged water from the plant should be zero. However, the maximum of 2 mg/liter is allowed. During the inspection, GPCB officials have found that the COD value of waste water discharged from the plant is in very higher side of the permissible limit (about over 150 mg/liter). The higher COD value of the waste water from the plant is very dangerous for the people living in the periphery of the plant. The R&D facility of Zydus Cadila discharges about 30,000 liters of water every day. Hence strong and stringent measures should be taken so that the company could not release water from its plant untreated.

This is perhaps a very positive step from the part of Gujarat Pollution Control Board. Others will also learn lesson form this example [2].
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.The presence of toxic effluent in ground water aquifers would prove dangerous for people living near the R&D centre. The GPCB team has disconnected power supply to the research centre and sealed the premises [2].

Sources and Materials


The air (prevention and control of pollution) act, 1981

The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act


[2] R&D unit served closure notice over pollution

[3] Zydus Cadila

[1] Zydus Cadila

Media Links

Zydus Research unit served closure notice over pollution, Ahmedabad - Tv9 Gujarati (in Gujarati)

Meta Information

ContributorSwapan Kumar Patra
Last update04/06/2014